Lecture 11. Tense and Aspect (I). Exercises 11.1 Uses of the simple present 11.2 Uses of the simple past 11.3 Uses of the present progressive 11.4 Uses of the past progressive. 1. You indulge your son so much that you him harm. A. are doing B. have done
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Tense and Aspect (I)
A. are doing B. have done
C. will have done D. are going to do
2. The film ___ how a college student _____ a criminal.
A. shows… is becoming
B. shows…will become
C. will show…will become
D. shows… becomes
A. was winning B. has won
C. won D. had won
4. The company ____ a rise in salary for ages, but nothing has happened yet.
A. has been promising
B. was promising
D. was promised
A. listened to B. was hearing
C. was listening to D. have heard
6. The moment he mailed the letter, he was soorry that he ____it.
A. wrote B. had been writing
C. had written D. was writing
A. you did not come
B. you should not come
C. you were not coming
D. you are not coming
8. While I ____ my glasses, I ____ a pen.
A. was finding; found
B. was looking for; found
C. was looking for; looked for
D. found; found
A. would be called B. will call
C. was calling D. was going to call
10. They were friends sharing weal and foe, for they ____ each other’s life in a battle.
A. were saved B. have saved
C. had been saved D. had saved
The simple present narrates complete
events that will not continue to
change or develop.
It is not marked for the progressive or
the perfective aspect, denoting the
It is often found in the expression
of eternal truths and proverbs, as
well as in scientific, mathematical,
geographical and other statements
made for all time. This use mostly
applies to stative verbs.
When in Rome, do as the Romans do.
A watched pot never boils.
A barking dog never bites.
Bad news travels fast.
Haste makes waste.
2) Habitual present
A. The simple present can also be used to denote a momentary phenomenon that exists at the time of speaking. This phenomenon usually has some duration and therefore is mostly associated with stative verbs.
This use is rather restricted, occurring
normally in certain speech situations such
as radio and television commentaries of
commentary of conjurors and
demonstrators, and some formal
4) Simple present referring to the future:
There are some subclauses used for future:
a.Besides temporal clauses and
conditional clauses, adverbial
clauses of concession, comparison
usually use the simple present to
b. In addition, such nominal clauses as “that” clause, “what” clause can also use the simple present to denote future.
d. “When” can introduce adverbial clause of time and nominal clauses (subjective clauses, objective clauses). Verbs in the adverbial clauses must use the simple present instead of the future time.
However, if “when” heads a nominal
clauses, it depends on the specific context.
(time, concepts, social distance)
e.g. He left ten minutes ago.
e.g. He worked in a bank all his life.
NOTE:Neither the event/state past
nor the habitual past has any
connection with the present moment,
so what is denoted by the simple past
must be something no longer existent at
the moment of speaking.
2) Attitudinal and hypothetical past
A.In specific contexts, the simple past can denote the present or the future time. One is associated with the present time in independent clauses expressing a question, request or suggestion, known as the attitudinal past.
B. The other is hypothetical past, referring not to a fact but to a non-fact, and is typically found in subjunctive clauses.
The progressive aspect denotes
incomplete, unfinished, or temporary
state, that is, the event concerned is a
part of the whole and can develop further.
1) Denoting an action in progress at the moment of speaking
B. an action vs. a habit
D. action vs. state
1) Denoting an action in progress at a definite point or period of past time
3) Denoting futurity in the past
e.g. I was reading a novel yesterday.
e.g. It rained/was raining all night.
e.g. I broke a glass while I was cooking the dinner.