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An Environmentally Benign. IGCC for Power generation. &. Energy Efficient Technology. By Dr. D.N. Reddy, Director

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An Environmentally Benign

IGCC for Power generation


Energy Efficient Technology


Dr. D.N. Reddy, Director

Er. K. Basu, Adviser Dr. V.K. Sethi, Research AdviserCentre for Energy Technology, University College of Engineering (Autonomous) Osmania University, Hyderabad – 500 007, India.

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  • Total installed capacity over 1,00,000 MW

  • Thermal power generation has emerged as the principal source of electric power in India contributing to about 70%

  • Coal fired thermal stations are in predominance and share about 84% of the total thermal installed capacity.

  • It is prudent and economical to develop methods and process for efficient utilization of low-grade Indian coals for power generation.

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  • Gasification of coal is the cleanest way of utilization of coal, while combined cycle power generation gives the highest efficiency.

  • Integration of these two technologies in IGCC power generation offers the benefits of very low emissions and efficiencies of the order of 44-48%.

  • The comparative indices show that in case of IGCC, emission of particulate, NOx and SOx are:

    7.1%, 20% and 16%, respectively, of the corresponding emissions from PC plant.

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  • Commercialization of IGCC needs technology demonstration at an intermediate scale of about 100 MW to address the issues such as:

    hot gas clean ups and system optimization and

    to establish reliability and performance.

  • This would also enable to design an optimum module for air blown gasification, which in multiples would constitute a commercial size plant in the range of 300-600 MW.

  • The present study addresses these issues and suggests suitable technologies for Indian Coals.

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VISION 2020 an intermediate scale of about 100 MW to address the issues such as:


Gasification using + fluidized bed, moving bed or Entrant bed Gasifiers

In-combustion Clean-up Fluidized bed combustion (CFBC, PFBC, AFBC)

Post combustion Clean-up-Desulfurization(FGC systems) Supercritical

Pre combustion Clean-up beneficiation/washing


Technologies for utilization of Coal for Power Generation with minimal pollutants discharged to the atmosphere (Reduced CO2, Sox, Nox, SPM) at high conversion efficiency……….W.C.I.

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Schematic Layout of the an intermediate scale of about 100 MW to address the issues such as:

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle


Flue Gas to Stack




Steam Turbine



Compressed Air

Hot Gas

Fuel gas


Gas Cleanup

Gas turbine





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Comparison of various Power Plants an intermediate scale of about 100 MW to address the issues such as:

* High efficiency coupled with low emission (SPM: 7%,

Sox:16%, Nox:21% of corresponding PC Plant)

** For Indigenous Units through systematic transfer of Technology

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Identified R&D Areas are: an intermediate scale of about 100 MW to address the issues such as:

  • Process optimization of selected gasification process

  • Improvement of design and reliability of plant components & Resource Optimization

  • Optimization of overall plant heat integration and layout

  • Hot gas cleanup

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COAL GASIFICATION – SELECTION OF GASIFICATION PROCESS an intermediate scale of about 100 MW to address the issues such as:

The fluidised bed process has many technical and environmental advantages over the moving bed process, such as,

  • The fluidised bed can use any amount of fines whereas in the moving bed only 10% of fines can be used.

  • In the fluidized bed process, hydrocarbon, liquid by-products such as tar, oil and gas-liquor are not produced and, hence, the pollution is reduced.

  • High ash coals can also be successfully gasified in the fluidised bed.

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BENEFITS EXPECTED FROM IGCC an intermediate scale of about 100 MW to address the issues such as:

  • India endowed with large coal reserves over 200 billion tonnes.

  • Environmental benefits due to higher efficiency of conversion and reduced SPM, SOx, NOx levels can be achieved using coal based IGCC technology.

  • Retrofit/Re-power options for gas based CCGT plants by installing only coal based gasifiers are cost effective (opportunity cost low) and are environmentally benign.

  • Adoption of IGCC technology in India has ‘Global’ as well as ‘National’ benefits.

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IGCC DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM IN INDIA an intermediate scale of about 100 MW to address the issues such as:

  • Pioneering work on IGCC development in India taken up by BHEL in early eighties.

  • Major Mile Stones

    • Choice of gasification for high ash coals by BHEL

    • 6.2 MW IGCC demonstration plant established by BHEL both with moving Bed and Fluidized bed.

    • Coal characterization by BHEL & IICT for gasification application.

    • Intensive data generated by IICT on oxygen-steam gasification in their moving bed gasifier.

    • Task force CEA, CSIR, NTPC & BHEL constituted to assess technological maturity & financial requirement for a green field IGCC plant of 100 MW capacity at Dadri (NTPC).

    • BHEL, CSIR & NTPC prepared proposal for setting up of this 100 MW IGCC demonstration plant.

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Technology-related issues in IGCC in the country.

  • Design of Advanced gasifiers (optimum gas composition, optimum scale-up etc.)

  • Hot gas cleaning (de-sulphurisation and particulate removal)

  • Advanced gas turbines (blade design to sustain ash laden gas)

  • CO2 emission abatement in IGCC Power Plants

  • Operating conditions of IGCC plants in transient stage

  • Configuration of an optimized system for IGCC

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Fuel – related issues in the country.

In a Raw Pet-Coke and refinery residue based IGCC Plant

  • System optimization, particularly the balance of plant

  • Optimized Heat balance diagrams

  • Scaling up of gasifiers to optimum size

    In a Coal/Lignite based IGCC Plant

  • Process & Plant conceptual design

  • De-sulfurization of syngas of high sulfur coal and lignite

  • Optimized Heat balance diagrams

  • Super critical Vs IGCC in Indian context

  • Application of ASME PTC-47 code for IGCC for high ash coals and lignite

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SOME IMPORTANT FINDINGS ……… in the country.

  • Reactive solid sorbent de-sulfurization combined with hot gas cleaning through ash and sorbent particle removal provides for higher energy efficiency to an extent of 4-7%.

  • The current Capital cost of building an IGCC power plant is of the order of Rupees 6 crore/ MW.

  • Improvements in hot gas cleaning coupled with Cycle optimization shall bring down the cost drastically to a level of $ 1000/kW or about Rupees 4.5 crore/MW

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  • The efficiency of refinery bottom based IGCC unit will be about 2% higher than that of coal based IGCC unit.

  • Refinery based IGCC plants - Advantages

    • Co-generation of steam

    • Co-production of hydrogen gas & recovery of sulfur element

    • No use of limestone, as required for CFBC technology

    • No requirement of extra land for disposal of solid waste

  • In the long run the refinery based IGCC technology is equally attractive to coal based IGCC from economic and environmental considerations.

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  • At present it may be prudent to implement the project in phased manner to absorb the risk of gasifier in the total project wrap-up guarantees fig. 1

  • A Technology Transfer model for determination of velocity of Transfer of Technology (TOT) is an useful tool for TOT of a frontier technology from a developed economy to a developing economy fig. 2

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Typical results of the velocity of TOT are : - about 2% higher than that of coal based IGCC unit.

(With year 2000 as base)

  • IGCC (oxygen blown) - Pet coke

    Normal pace ---- 5 years

    Accelerated ---- 2 years

    (Fig 3)

  • IGCC (Air Blown) ---- Coal

    Normal pace ---- 7 years

    Accelerated ---- 5 years

    ( Fig 4)

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Fig. 1 about 2% higher than that of coal based IGCC unit.

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Fig. 2 about 2% higher than that of coal based IGCC unit.

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Fig. 3 about 2% higher than that of coal based IGCC unit.

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Fig. 4 about 2% higher than that of coal based IGCC unit.

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o about 2% higher than that of coal based IGCC unit.

Super Critical PC Power Plant (15 C Amb.)


Super Critical PC Power Plant (Indian Condition)


IGCC (15 C Amb)


IGCC (Indian Condition)

Sub Critical PC Power Plant (Indian Condition)



1500 C


1300 C


623 C

Net Thermal Efficiency (%)


600 C



566 C


Ceramic gas



1184 C


650 C



540 C







Year of commercial use