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African Americans and Civil Rights. Segregation. Laws had separated the races since the late 1800s. Due to segregation, African Americans set up communities and became very successful. African American entertainment was popular outside black communities. Segregation.

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Presentation Transcript
  • Laws had separated the races since the late 1800s.
  • Due to segregation, African Americans set up communities and became very successful.
  • African American entertainment was popular outside black communities.
  • Many entertainers were peforming for royalty, winning awards, and were international stars.
  • But none of these stars could even walk through the front door of most hotels, even if they were performing there.
  • For African Americans that were not famous, life was even harder.
  • This issue became very more serious as African Americans became more successful and more educated.
  • African Americans wanted equality.
the struggle continues
The Struggle Continues
  • After World War II, many people joined the struggle for civil rights.
  • Civil Rights
    • the rights that are guaranteed to all citizens by the Constitution
the struggle continues1
The Struggle Continues
  • In 1948 Truman ordered the end of segregation in the US military.
  • Jackie Robinson was the first African American to “break the color line” in major league baseball.
ending school segregation
Ending School Segregation
  • Education was another area in American life where blacks and whites were kept apart.
  • The NAACP decided to end segregation in public schools, and Thurgood Marshall, a lawyer, led this fight.
ending school segregation1
Ending School Segregation
  • He knew that he would have to get the Supreme Court to declare that segregation was illegal under the Constitution.
  • Marshall had a chance with the Brown v. the Board of Education.
ending school segregation2
Ending School Segregation
  • The Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public schools was illegal under the Constitution.
the montgomery bus boycott
The Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • Rosa Parks got on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama in 1955.
  • She sat in the middle of the bus, a section that African Americans could only sit in if no white passengers wanted those seats.
  • As the bus continued, more people got on.
the montgomery bus boycott1
The Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • The driver told Parks to move so that a white passenger could have her seat.
  • Parks refused and was arrested.
  • Many African Americans were angry and fed up.
the montgomery bus boycott2
The Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • African Americans refused to ride the bus and began a boycott.
  • They carpooled or walked to work for more than a year until the Supreme Court decided that segregation on public buses was illegal.
the montgomery bus boycott3
The Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • Martin Luther King, Jr. would watch empty buses pass his home and couldn’t believe it.
  • He went on to become one of the most memorable Civil Rights leaders in American history.
martin luther king jr
Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • great speaker
  • Minister
  • Civil Rights leader for African Americans to:
    • to vote
    • have opportunities for schooling
    • get better jobs
  • In 1968, King was assassinated at the age of 39.
the movement grows
The Movement Grows
  • Although the Supreme Court said that segregation in schools and public buses was illegal, African Americans demanded equality in all areas of life.
  • Passive resistance
    • to oppose something without using violence
      • sit-ins
      • freedom rides
      • marches
the movement grows1
The Movement Grows
  • Sit-ins became very popular in the South and word spread throughout the country.
  • Some protesters were arrested.
  • Freedom rides were organized to see if public transportation was obeying the law and not segregating customers.
the movement grows2
The Movement Grows
  • Marches were also held in the South to draw attention to the cause of civil rights.
  • Protesters did not give up!
gains and losses
Gains and Losses
  • In 1963, 200,000 Americans of all different races gathered in Washington, D.C. for a massive march for civil rights.
  • Martin Luther King, Jr. gave his famous “I have a dream” speech as he spoke of his hopes for the future.
gains and losses1
Gains and Losses
  • When JFK was assassinated, Lyndon B. Johnson asked Congress to honor JFK’s memory and pass the civil rights bill.
  • In 1964, segregation was banned in all public places in the US.
gains and losses2
Gains and Losses
  • In 1965, African Americans were given the right the protection of voting which made it possible for many to vote for the first time.
  • Malcolm X, a civil rights leader, feared that change would not happen quickly enough.
gains and losses3
Gains and Losses
  • He urged African Americans to rely on themselves and to work hard.
  • Later in his life, he urged blacks and whites to come together to bring change to the country.
continued successes
Continued Successes
  • African American firsts in the 1900s:
    • 1949-Ralph Bunche won the Nobel Peace Prize
    • 1952-Jackie Robinson became the first black executive of a TV network
    • 1958-Clinton R. Wharton, Sr. was the first to head a US embassy in Europe
    • 1964-Arthur Ashe was the first to play on the US Davis Cup tennis team
    • 1967-Thurgood Marshall was the first black justice for the Supreme Court
continued successes1
Continued Successes
  • 1971-Samuel Lee Gravely, Jr. was the firs admiral in the US Navy
  • 1989-L. Douglas Wilder became the first elected governor of a state