** 现在完成时**. 现在完成时是由助动词 have （ has ） + 过去分词 构成 其否定句在 Have/has 后加 not. 一般疑问句把 have/has 提到主语前 . 动词的过去分词：规则变化（和过去时一样） 不规则变化：. 不规则变化： am/is-was-been are-were-been begin-began-begun break-broke-broken
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run- ran – run become-became-become
I have just cleaned my clothes. 我刚洗过衣服。
I have just had my breakfast. (对现在的影响：不饿)
通常与表示包括现在在内的时间副词 just（刚刚）, already（已经）, before, yet（一般疑问：已经；否定句：还） never, ever等状语连用
① I have never heard of that before.
② Have you ever ridden a horse?
③ She has already finished the work.
④ Have you milked the cow yet? Yes, I have done
⑤ I’ve just finished my homework.
⑥ He has not come yet.
2。表示过去已经开始，持续到现在的动作或状态，也可以表示实质可能继续下去的动作或状态。通常和 for（段时间）, since（点时间） 引导的时间状语连用.以及 so far, by now, these days, in the last ten years 等连用。
I have been here for just over two years. He has worked here since 1989. 从1989年，
I haven’t seen herthese days.
She has learnt English for 3 years/since 3 years ago.
They have lived here since 1990.
What has happened to the USA in the last 350 years?
现在完成时表示过去的动作一直延续到现在甚至会继续下去或表示过去的动作对现在造成的影响；一般过去时表示动作发生的时间在过去。现在完成时属于现在时态范围，因此，不能和表示过去的时间状语连用。 如：yesterday, last night, two weeks ago等
The plane has arrived . 飞机已经来了。（说明现在的情况：飞机在这儿）
The plane arrived a quarter ago. 飞机是一刻中以前来的。（强调动作发生的时间在过去）
I have taught here for fifteen years. 我在这儿已经教了十五年。（表示十五年前的动作一直延续到现在，还可能会继续。）
I taught here for a year. 我过去在这儿教过一年。（表示“我“现在已经不在这儿任教了）
A: The train has left.
B: When did it leave.
A: It left half an hour ago.
A: I`ve had the book for two years.
B: Where did you buy it?
A: I bought it in my hometown.
A: have you seen the film?
B: Yes, I have.
A: When did you see it?
B: I saw it last Sunday.
短暂性动词在肯定句、疑问句中不能与时间段连用，这些动词是：become, begin, buy, borrow, arrive, come, die, fall, finish, get to know, go, join, leave, marry等。为了表述这种意思，我们常用相应的延续性动词have，keep等来代替非延续性动词。
他入党五年了。He joined the Party five years ago .
——He has been in the Party for five years.
——He has been a Party member for five years.
——it is five years since he joined the Party
电影开始五分钟了。 The film began five minutes ago.
——The film has been on for five minutes.
——It is five minutes since the film began
come/go — be (in) leave — be away
borrow — keep buy — have
die — be dead get to know — know
begin — be on go out — be off
go out — be off arrive – be here/there
marry/get married (to)— be married (to)
begin to work/study/live – work/study/leave
fall asleep/get to sleep — be asleep
join the Party — be in the Party/be a member of
I have bought a new dictionary for a week.
I have had a new dictionary for a week.
They have been here for two days.
They have come here for two days.
请 判 断
He has joined the League member for two years.
He has been a League member for two years.
The man has been dead for several years.
The man has died for several years.
2.The film hasbegunfor 5 minutes.( )
A B C
B been on
A B C
I’ve _____ the bike _____ two years.
4. He left Nanjing two years ago.
He _____ _____ _____ _____ Nanjing for two years.
has been away from
5. The monkey died last month.
The monkey _____ _____ _____ for a month.
has been dead
6. A: Hong long _____ you ____ ( )
B: Two weeks.
A.did,get ill B. have,fallen ill C. were,ill D. have,been ill
1、have (has) been in 表示“在某地（多长时间）”，现在仍在那里。常与表示一段时间的状语连用。例如：
Mr. Brown has been in Shanghai for three days. 布朗来上海已经有三天了。
They have been in Canada for five years. 他们到加拿大有五年了。
2、have( has)been to表示“曾经去过某地”，现在已经不在那里了。可与just, ever, never等连用，例如：
I have just been to the post office. 我刚才去邮局了。
Mary has never been to the Great Wall. 玛丽从未去过长城。
Have you ever been to Hangzhou before? 你以前曾经去过杭州吗？
Have (has) been to 后面可接次数，表示去过某地几次。例如：
They have been to that village several times. 他们去过那个村庄好几次了。
3、have (has) gone to 意为“到某地去了”，表示到了某地或正在去某地的途中。总之，说话时该人不在现场，例如：
----Where is Tom? ----He has gone to the bookshop. 他到书店去了。
Jack Johnson has gone to London. 杰克.约翰逊到伦敦去了。
A: Where __1__ Li Fei __1__?
B: He __2__ to Hainan Island.
A: How long __3__ he __3___ there?
B: He ___4__ there for three days.
A: When will he come back , do you know?
B: I’m afraid he won’t come back recently.
A: Could you tell me the way to Hainan Island?
B: Sorry, I __5__ never __5__ there.
A: How many times __6__ Li Fei __6___ to that place?
B: He __7__ there only once.
1. Mary _______(lose) her pen. ______ you ______ (see) it here and there?
2. ______ you ______ (find) your watch yet?
3. ---Are you thirsty? ---NO, I ______ just _______ (have) some orange.
4. We ________already ______ (return) the book.
5. ______ they _____ (build) a new school in the village?
6. ---Has Tom taught you English?
---Yes, he ______ (teach) us English for two years.
7. I ______(not finish) my homework yet. Can you help me?
8. What ______ they _____ (do) with the newspaper? They have read them.
9. --- The door is open. Who ______ (open) it? Do you know?
--- Sorry, I don’t know.
10. My father _____ (read) the novel twice.
11. Wu Dong _____(be) a soldier for one year.
12. The students ______(study) in the middle school since last month.
13. How long ______ you ______(know) him?
14. Mike ______ (make) quite a few friends since he came to China.
15. I _____(give) my friend a nice book recently.
16. Li Ping and Wu Dong ______(see) the old man three times.
17. _____ she ever _____(teach) you English?
18. These children _____ (stay) in the park for two hours.