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** 现在完成时**. 现在完成时是由助动词 have ( has ) + 过去分词 构成 其否定句在 Have/has 后加 not. 一般疑问句把 have/has 提到主语前 . 动词的过去分词:规则变化(和过去时一样) 不规则变化:. 不规则变化: am/is-was-been are-were-been begin-began-begun break-broke-broken

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现在完成时是由助动词have(has)+过去分词构成现在完成时是由助动词have(has)+过去分词构成

其否定句在Have/has后加not. 一般疑问句把have/has提到主语前.

动词的过去分词:规则变化(和过去时一样)

不规则变化:

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不规则变化:

am/is-was-been are-were-been

begin-began-begun break-broke-broken

do-did-done draw-drew-drawn

drink-drank-drunk drive-drove-driven

eat-ate-eaten fall-fell-fallen

fly-flew-flown forget-forgot-forgotten

give-gave-given go-went-gone

grow-grew-grown hide-hid-hidden

know-knew-known lie-lay-lain

ride-rode-ridden ring-rang-rung

show-showed-shown see-saw-seen

sing-sang-sung speak-spoke-spoken

take-took-taken come-came-come

run- ran – run become-became-become

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1。表过去发生的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果,例如1。表过去发生的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果,例如

I have just cleaned my clothes. 我刚洗过衣服。

(“洗衣服”是发生在过去的动作,对现在造成的结果是“衣服干净了”)

I have just had my breakfast. (对现在的影响:不饿)

通常与表示包括现在在内的时间副词 just(刚刚), already(已经), before, yet(一般疑问:已经;否定句:还) never, ever等状语连用

① I have never heard of that before.

② Have you ever ridden a horse?

③ She has already finished the work.

④ Have you milked the cow yet? Yes, I have done

that already.

⑤ I’ve just finished my homework.

⑥ He has not come yet.

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2。表示过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作或状态,也可以表示实质可能继续下去的动作或状态。通常和 for(段时间), since(点时间) 引导的时间状语连用.以及 so far, by now, these days, in the last ten years 等连用。

I have been here for just over two years. He has worked here since 1989. 从1989年,

I haven’t seen herthese days.

She has learnt English for 3 years/since 3 years ago.

They have lived here since 1990.

What has happened to the USA in the last 350 years?

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注意点一:

现在完成时与一般过去时的用法比较

现在完成时表示过去的动作一直延续到现在甚至会继续下去或表示过去的动作对现在造成的影响;一般过去时表示动作发生的时间在过去。现在完成时属于现在时态范围,因此,不能和表示过去的时间状语连用。 如:yesterday, last night, two weeks ago等

试比较:

The plane has arrived . 飞机已经来了。(说明现在的情况:飞机在这儿)

The plane arrived a quarter ago. 飞机是一刻中以前来的。(强调动作发生的时间在过去)

I have taught here for fifteen years. 我在这儿已经教了十五年。(表示十五年前的动作一直延续到现在,还可能会继续。)

I taught here for a year. 我过去在这儿教过一年。(表示“我“现在已经不在这儿任教了)

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Put the following sentences into English.

  • A: 火车已经开走了.
  • B: 什么时候开走的?
  • A: 半个小时之前开走的.
  • A: 这本书我已经买了两年了.
  • B: 你在哪儿买的?
  • A: 在我老家买的.
  • A: 你看过这部电影吗?
  • B: 看过.
  • A: 什么时候看的.
  • B: 上周星期天看的.

A: The train has left.

B: When did it leave.

A: It left half an hour ago.

A: I`ve had the book for two years.

B: Where did you buy it?

A: I bought it in my hometown.

A: have you seen the film?

B: Yes, I have.

A: When did you see it?

B: I saw it last Sunday.

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注意点二、非延续性动词与现在完成时

短暂性动词在肯定句、疑问句中不能与时间段连用,这些动词是:become, begin, buy, borrow, arrive, come, die, fall, finish, get to know, go, join, leave, marry等。为了表述这种意思,我们常用相应的延续性动词have,keep等来代替非延续性动词。

他入党五年了。He joined the Party five years ago .

——He has been in the Party for five years.

——He has been a Party member for five years.

——it is five years since he joined the Party

电影开始五分钟了。 The film began five minutes ago.

——The film has been on for five minutes.

——It is five minutes since the film began

slide9

瞬间动词与延续性动词的转换

come/go — be (in) leave — be away

borrow — keep buy — have

die — be dead get to know — know

begin — be on go out — be off

go out — be off arrive – be here/there

marry/get married (to)— be married (to)

begin to work/study/live – work/study/leave

fall asleep/get to sleep — be asleep

join the Party — be in the Party/be a member of

slide10

( )

I have bought a new dictionary for a week.

I have had a new dictionary for a week.

( )

我买一本新词典已有一星期了。

( )

They have been here for two days.

They have come here for two days.

( )

他们来这儿已经两天了。

请 判 断

( )

He has joined the League member for two years.

He has been a League member for two years.

( )

他已入团两年了。

( )

The man has been dead for several years.

( )

The man has died for several years.

这个人已经死了几年了。

×

×

×

×

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1.I haveborrowed the book for 2 weeks.

( )

2.The film hasbegunfor 5 minutes.( )

B kept

A B C

B been on

A B C

3. 这辆自行车我买了两年了。

I’ve _____ the bike _____ two years.

had for

4. He left Nanjing two years ago.

He _____ _____ _____ _____ Nanjing for two years.

has been away from

5. The monkey died last month.

The monkey _____ _____ _____ for a month.

has been dead

6. A: Hong long _____ you ____ ( )

B: Two weeks.

A.did,get ill B. have,fallen ill C. were,ill D. have,been ill

D

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注意点三:have been in, have been to 与have gone to 的用法

1、have (has) been in 表示“在某地(多长时间)”,现在仍在那里。常与表示一段时间的状语连用。例如:

Mr. Brown has been in Shanghai for three days. 布朗来上海已经有三天了。

They have been in Canada for five years. 他们到加拿大有五年了。

2、have( has)been to表示“曾经去过某地”,现在已经不在那里了。可与just, ever, never等连用,例如:

I have just been to the post office. 我刚才去邮局了。

Mary has never been to the Great Wall. 玛丽从未去过长城。

Have you ever been to Hangzhou before? 你以前曾经去过杭州吗?

Have (has) been to 后面可接次数,表示去过某地几次。例如:

They have been to that village several times. 他们去过那个村庄好几次了。

3、have (has) gone to 意为“到某地去了”,表示到了某地或正在去某地的途中。总之,说话时该人不在现场,例如:

----Where is Tom? ----He has gone to the bookshop. 他到书店去了。

Jack Johnson has gone to London. 杰克.约翰逊到伦敦去了。

slide13

练习:用have(has) been 或have(has) gone 填空

A: Where __1__ Li Fei __1__?

B: He __2__ to Hainan Island.

A: How long __3__ he __3___ there?

B: He ___4__ there for three days.

A: When will he come back , do you know?

B: I’m afraid he won’t come back recently.

A: Could you tell me the way to Hainan Island?

B: Sorry, I __5__ never __5__ there.

A: How many times __6__ Li Fei __6___ to that place?

B: He __7__ there only once.

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用括号中所给的动词的适当形式完成下列句子。用括号中所给的动词的适当形式完成下列句子。

1. Mary _______(lose) her pen. ______ you ______ (see) it here and there?

2. ______ you ______ (find) your watch yet?

3. ---Are you thirsty? ---NO, I ______ just _______ (have) some orange.

4. We ________already ______ (return) the book.

5. ______ they _____ (build) a new school in the village?

6. ---Has Tom taught you English?

---Yes, he ______ (teach) us English for two years.

7. I ______(not finish) my homework yet. Can you help me?

8. What ______ they _____ (do) with the newspaper? They have read them.

9. --- The door is open. Who ______ (open) it? Do you know?

--- Sorry, I don’t know.

10. My father _____ (read) the novel twice.

11. Wu Dong _____(be) a soldier for one year.

12. The students ______(study) in the middle school since last month.

13. How long ______ you ______(know) him?

14. Mike ______ (make) quite a few friends since he came to China.

15. I _____(give) my friend a nice book recently.

16. Li Ping and Wu Dong ______(see) the old man three times.

17. _____ she ever _____(teach) you English?

18. These children _____ (stay) in the park for two hours.

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