The True Health Effects of Radiation Presented by Y. C. Luan On behalf the 14 authors from Nuclear Science and Technology Association NBC contamination prevention Society and three Universities
Abstract . Health effects of radiation depend on the circumstances or the dose-rate of radiation being received. . Radiation might be classified into acute and chronic exposure radiation. . Health effects of acute and chronic exposure radiation are contradicting each other. . Acute radiation is mostly harmful to people, butChronic radiation is always beneficial to people.
Introduction-1 1.The health effects of radiation depend on the circumstances or dose rate of radiation being received. 2.Acute radiation is radiation received instantaneously in high dose rate in a short period of time. 3.Chronic radiation is the radiation received continuously in low dose rate in long time. 4.Chronic radiation, though is feared as acute radiation, is actually beneficial to people. 5. Chronic radiation was serendipitously observed to be always beneficial to humans from the incident of Co-60 contaminated apartments in Taiwan.
Introduction-2 6. Health effects of acute and chronic radiation are entirely different: 86,572 atomic bomb survivors in Japan had 5.4% cancer mortality increasing in 40 years; but 10,000 irradiated residents in Taiwan had 97% cancer mortality decreasing. 7. 31 Chernobyl firemen and workers received acute radiation from fission products died; workers and public outside of plant were benefited when fission products diluted and decayed to chronic radiation,.
Introduction-3 8. The chronic radiation experienced in Taiwan, might be used in preventing of cancers and hereditary diseases. 9. Traditional radiation protection should be revised for promoting the nuclear energy application. 10. Fearing of chronic radiation should be abolished, spending of billions dollars for radiation protection should be saved.
The health effects of acute radiation 1.Deterministic effects of the acute radiation could cause radiation sickness and death. 2.Stochastic effects of acute radiation could increase cancer mortality as described in ICRP-60. 3.LNT hypothesis implies that all radiation are harmful, the effects of low dose could be extrapolated from the high dose based on LNT model. 4.LNT model of ICRP is simple, logical, and conservative for governing of the radiation protection. 5. But the LNT model is not appropriate for doses<100 mSv.
The health effects of chronic radiation 1.Radiation from natural background is chronic radiation. 2.Radiation received by workers, and occasionally by public from the nuclear power plants, is also chronic radiation. 3.Chronic radiation with doses lower than 100 mSv, should be less harmful physiologically and pathologically than the same dose of acute radiation. 4.Dr. Sternglass and other scientists claimed in 1960s chronic radiation had same or even more harmful effects than the acute radiation. 5. Radiation is thus to be always afraid by people.
The controversy of radiation health effects-1 1. LNT model was mainly derived from the leukemia deaths at high doses of acute radiation: cohort of 905 survivors (1% of total 86,572) with dose in >2 Sv, leukemia mortality increased 14 times; cohort of 2819 survivors (3.2% of total 86.572 )with dose >1 Sv, leukemia deaths increased 5 times of the public. Two cohorts of 32915 and 5613 survivors ( 44.5% of total 86,572) with dose in 5 mSv-100 mSv, had no excess but less leukemia deaths based on LNT.
The controversy of radiation health effects-2 2.The survivors received doses < 100 mSv, had no excess cancer deaths as LNT predicated, LNT model is not appropriate for low dose acute radiation. 3.Preston et al 2003 RERF report had more data, but no new results obtained. 4. Dr Sohei Kondo, professor emeritus of Osaka University, asserted low acute radiation from atomic explosion could reduce the cancer mortality, and increase life span. 5. Both ANS and HPS had statements of 50 mSv/y or 100 mSv whole life would be unnecessary to evaluate the individual radiation risk.
A radiological incident in Taiwan revealed chronic radiation is always beneficial to humans-1 1.Epidemiological studies of people in the higher natural background radiation areas in Kerala, India, Yangjing, China and Mountain States in USA, had lower cancer deaths. And higher doses received by nuclear workers in many countries had received higher doses but had lower cancer deaths; These results have still not accepted as human data in proving chronic radiation is beneficial to people by all regulatory communities until today. 2. The incredible Co-60 contaminated apartments incident 20 years ago in Taiwan, did not show harmful effects to people, but serendipitously revealed it was beneficial to them.
A radiological incident in Taiwan revealed chronic radiation is always beneficial to humans-2 3.A Co-60 source was mixed in the metal scrap, melted and drawn into steel bars which used finally in construction of 1700 apartments for about 10,000 residents in 1082-84. The first apartment was discovered in 1992, the residents irradiated at least for 9 years, long up to 20 years. The annual dose in the first year 1983 was close to 50 mSv/y, high up to 600 mSv/y. The total averaged dose was about 0.4 mSv, and high up to 6 Sv.
A radiological incident in Taiwan revealed chronic radiation is always beneficial to humans-3 4.The total doses cumulated in 20 years were higher than the average doses received by the atomic bomb survivors in Japan, and the Russian recovery workers in Chernobyl accident. If LNT model is appropriate for chronic radiation, the excessive doses could induce at least 35 excess leukemia and 35 solid cancer deaths in 20 years, actually none of such deaths observed, on the contrary, the spontaneous cancer deaths of the residents of about 232 in 20 years based on the vital statistics in Taiwan, but reduced to only 7, or 3% of the general population, as shown in the following curve plotted by Luan et al since 1983.
A radiological incident in Taiwan revealed chronic radiation is always beneficial to humans-4
A radiological incident in Taiwan revealed chronic radiation is always beneficial to humans-5 5.The radiation could reduce hereditary malfunctions of the descendants of the residents was also observed, 46 based on LNT and 21 on congenital, but reduced to 3, or 6.5% of the general public. 6. No harmful health effects chronic radiation observed in cytogenetic analysis. 7.As the doses received from the natural background and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are seldom bigger than the doses received in the Co-60 incident, it meant any chronic radiation is always beneficial to humans.
A radiological incident in Taiwan revealed chronic radiation is always beneficial to humans-6 8.The beneficial health effects of radiation observed in the Taiwan was coincidental to the theory of Dr. T.D. Luckey and his Complete Dose-Response Curve: 100 mSv/y is optimum to human health, 10 Sv/y is still in hormetic range. 9. The chronic radiation is always to humans was discovered by a group independent and knowledgeable scientists and published the reports in many international conferences and journals.
Most radiation is chronic radiation and beneficial to humans 1.Nuclear power plants, and related facilities, usually equipped with safety design and shielding, the nuclear workers and public could receive only chronic radiation. 2.The doses of chronic radiation received by the nuclear energy and public would be never higher than 50 mSv/y, so that it is always beneficial to them. 3. Population in the higher natural background areas have always lower cancer mortality. 4. Beneficial effects of chronic radiation should be accepted by scientists, communities and regulation authorities.
Out of control Radioactive source is still risky 1.The health effects of chronic radiation from Co-60 incident in Taiwan were serendipitously observed beneficial to humans, but most incident of out of control of Co-60, Cs-137 or other isotope is still harmful, even could kill people. 2. There were quite number of people killed out of control incidences in Mexico, China, Brazil and in Tailand. 3. A big out of control incident of Co-50 in Mexico 1984, but no people were killed and the contaminated steel bars shipped to USA were shortly identified and recovered. 4. The out of control incident in Taiwan was an unique case showed the true health effects of radiation.
The health effects of radiation from the Chernobyl accident-1 1.The Chernobyl accident emits both acute radiation and chronic radiation, 2.Chernobyl accident was considered to be a catastrophe, to frighten all people in the world; but was also a good opportunity to observe the health effects of radiation. 3. When the meltdown high radioactive fission products released abruptly into the reactor hall, 31 firemen and workers received high doses of acute radiation in a short time, just like the radiation received by atomic bomb survivors.
The health effects of radiation from the Chernobyl accident-2 4. The radiation received in Chernobyl accident was longer time and consisted of not only gamma, but beta and alpha. the dose rate was about 1 Gy/hr on April 26, 1986, but high enough to kill people. 5. When Fission products dispersed and deposited on spacious ground, highly diluted and decayed of its radioactivity to one tenth every seven-fold time lapses, 49 hours later would decrease to about 1%, 10 mGy/r. 6. So that in a few days after the accident, the acute radiation from fission products turned to be chronic radiation, and beneficial to the public
The chronic radiation from the accident is harmless-1 1.200,000 Russian workers engaged for decontamination received an average dose of about 100 mSv, followed-up by the International Chernobyl Project (ICP) under the supervision of the IAEA and WHO. 2. The ICP predicated that 150 leukemia deaths in ten years after the accident based on LNT model. But none of such results were observed and reported so in the one decade after Chernobyl conference co-sponsored by the EC, IAEA and WHO, held in Vienna in 1996 7 3.There were also no such results described in UNSCEAR 2000 annul report to the General Assembly
The chronic radiation from the accident is harmless-2 4.These reports meant that emergency workers and the evacuated public suffer no excess solid cancer deaths, though they had received quite amount of radiation. 5.A severe nuclear accident like Chernobyl could only harm only few workers in the reactor hall, could not harm workers and public outside of power plants. 6. Both reports indicated quite amount of thyroid cancer incidences observed among the children, but no proper control cohort for exact comparison of thyroid cancer deaths of the children under the ages of 18.
Most radiation from accident is chronic radiation and beneficial to people-1 1. Russian specialists from the national science and medical academy followed the health results of the workers with their own RNMDR system”, and the summary report sent to IAEA as a letter to the IAEA BULLTIN editor ( IAEA BULLETIN 42/4/2000 ) They found cancer deaths of the emergency workers were statistically lower than the control public, 48 leukoses cases verified among the 180.000 emergency workers in 14 years (1986-2000).
Most radiation from accident is chronic radiation and beneficial to people-2 2. Assuming Russian workers in particular age had the same spontaneous leukemia mortality of the Japanese ( the cancer of total population is found often close to male in the ages of 20-50), their spontaneous leukemia deaths of the workers should be about 118 (180,000/86,572x162 x14/40 =118) 3. And assuming also they had the similar cancer mortality of the population in Taiwan in 200 persons/100,000 person-years (ages in 34-64), and leukemia in about 2.6% of all caners, The Russian workers should be at least 131 (200/100,000 x180,000x.026x14 =131).
Most radiation from accident is chronic radiation and beneficial to people-3 4. Even 48 leukose incidences meant leukemia death, it was lower for Russian workers. 5. Only the cancer deaths decreased in the Russian paper was attributed to“ healthy worker effects” and “better medical care.” 6. What did “ healthy worker effect “ and “ better medical care” mean? If these could be clarified as not dominant, or the cancer deaths of the workers in a big number, it could be concluded that the chronic radiation from Chernobyl accident is beneficial to the emergency workers, and to public in the fallout areas in the world
Follow-up study of Chernobyl workers revealed chronic radiation also beneficial-1 1. 65,905 emergency workers with external doses averaged in 100 mSv were followed by Russia Academy of Medical Science and reported in 2001 HPJ. 2. The report indicated that the all causes death mortality is in 0.6-0.9, average in 0.82 lower than the the public. 3. The cancer mortality of the workers in 1998 was in 110 persons /100,000 person-years, and the total cancer deaths were 515 observed in 8 years (1991-1998). 4. There was no comparison with Russian public reported. Assuming the workers had same cancer deaths as the Japanese, the cancer deaths should be about 1102 (65,905/86,572x7244 x8/40=1102)
Follow-up study of Chernobyl workers revealed chronic radiation might be also beneficial-2 5. Assuming the workers ( In ages of about 36-66) has similar spontaneous cancer mortality as population in Taiwan of 200 persons/100,000 person-year, the cancer deaths of the workers was about 1054 ( 200 /100,000 x 65,905 x8 =1054) 6. 515 cancer deaths among 4995 total deaths in 8 years, was only 10%, seemed too low in comparing with most countries of about 25 %. it should be over 1000. 7. Peter Fong predicated in his paper to Chernobyl conference after one decay in 1996, 3,000,000 cancer deaths might be prevented (not officially disclosed).
Follow-up study of Chernobyl workers revealed chronic radiation might be also beneficial-3 8. The study by Russia Medical Academy indicated also the lower mortality might be attributed to the ”Healthy worker effects” and the “incomplete data collection”. if these uncertainty factors could be clarified as not dominant, the health effects of chronic radiation from accidents should be globally recognized. 9. A nuclear accident might be only harmful to the workers inside of reactor hall, but beneficial to the workers and public outside the reactor. The public should also not fear of nuclear accident.
Conclusion and remarks-1 1. Chronic radiation is different to acute radiation and always beneficial to humans were serendipitously observed in Taiwan. 2. The cancer mortality induced to humans by acute radiation is hard to discerned from the the spontaneous cancers, which often in big number and has long latent period; but people has the highest cancer death rate, and the chronic radiation could strongly immune it, it could be easily identified in an epidemiological study. 3. The incident of the Co-60 contamination had incidentally indicated chronic radiation could effective immunize the cancers as a vaccine.
Conclusion and remarks-2 4. There were no evidence indicating hereditary defects could be caused by acute radiation; but the chronic could prevent the defects. 5. The beneficial health effects of chronic radiation observed in Taiwan was limited to the low LET gamma radiation to whole body exposure. High LET radiation from radioactive material or internal contamination of Alpha and Beta has also beneficial effects observed in animal tests.
Conclusion and remarks-3 6. Atomic bomb explosion in Japan produced also big quantity of radioactive substances (fission products), but evaporated immediately to the stratosphere, and became of global fallout, then gradually deposited on the ground in the world, which is also known as chronic radiation, and beneficial to people. 7. Dr Peter Fong ever studied the fallout from the US atmosphere nuclear tests which did not increase but prevent millions of cancer deaths of Americans.
Conclusion and remarks-4 8. Chronic radiation exposed to the workers and public from the nuclear power plants is similar to the radiation exposed to the residents in the Co-60 contamination in Taiwan, only in smaller doses, so that it is surely also beneficial to them. 9. People receive the natural background radiation every day, and people in higher natural background areas often receive higher doses than the nuclear workers, so that natural radiation is essential to human beings.
Conclusion and remarks-5 10. The public in suburb of the nuclear power plants, should never fear of radiation but welcome it, even in accident. 11. Governmental radiation protection measures should not be strictly conducted based LNT model, and nuclear energy should be considered as the most safe energy. 12. A nuclear accident could occasionally incur, only its acute radiation could harm a few workers, and they could be avoided with some reasonable procedure.
Conclusion and remarks-6 13. Cancer deaths and hereditary defects are the disastrous and miserable sickness, it is now known that it could be prevented by chronic radiation in proper doses. 14. Numerous animal tests in many countries indicated the dose rate > 1mSv/hr were beneficial to the animals. And authors in our study had purposely to test the health of mice with dose rate >1 mSv/hr which showed also healthy results to mice.
Conclusion and remarks-7 15. The incident of Co-60 contamination in Taiwan showed that many residents living in 1 mSv/hr apartments in 1983 was still be healthy. 16. This paper tentatively suggests <1 mSv/hr as the acceptable dose rate limit of chronic radiation. If a person lives all year in such radioactive environment, he might receive many Sv in one year, which is still in the beneficial range of Luckey’s dose-effect curve, though it might not be the optimum dose rate to health.
Conclusion and remarks-8 18. Many studies indicated beneficial health effects of chronic radiation could be useful in cancer therapies, enhance of immune system, activation of gene p53, suppress diabetes, AIDS and for pain relief etc. Such studies are valuable to human beings, should be further studied.
Recommendation-1 1. The findings in the Co-60 incident could be regarded as more important than the findings obtained in the atomic bomb explosion in Japan, but they need more studies by the international scientists and communities, especially on the mechanism of the beneficial effects, and communicate the entire world of the results to the medical and nuclear energy applications. 2. From the experiences obtained from the incident of Co-60 contamination, and the beneficial effects observed in the Chernobyl accident, the conventional radiation protection should be revised for elevating application of nuclear energy.
Recommendation-2 3. This paper tentatively recommended the1mSv/hr and 1 Sv/y as the acceptable hourly and annually dose rate limit for the nuclear energy workers and the public. The 50 mSv as the optimum annual doses to people, 4. The emergency plans for the nuclear reactor accidents and for out of control of radioactive sources of course should be also revised. 5. As cancers and hereditary defects are the miserable sicknesses, the medical scientists and communities should design appropriate radiation irradiators, and use the optimized doses in preventing the miserable sicknesses