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Viscosity. Fluid Resistance. An object moving through or on a fluid meets resistance. Force causes the fluid to move. The velocity is proportional to the force. F. v x. Velocity Gradient. The resistance tends to keep the fluid in place. Law of inertia

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fluid resistance
Fluid Resistance
  • An object moving through or on a fluid meets resistance.
  • Force causes the fluid to move.
  • The velocity is proportional to the force.

F

vx

velocity gradient
Velocity Gradient
  • The resistance tends to keep the fluid in place.
    • Law of inertia
  • The fluid moves most near the object and least farther away.
  • This is a velocity gradient.

F

vx

y

law of viscosity
Law of Viscosity
  • Newton combined these two proportionalities.
  • This is the law of viscosity.
    • A is the area of the solid sliding on the fluid
  • The constant h is the dynamic viscosity and depends on the type of fluid.

F

vx

y

poiseuille s law
Flow in a tube is affected by sides in all directions.

The relationship between velocity and distance is

The total volume flow rate is

Poiseuille’s Law

r

P1

vx

P2

L

drag force
Drag Force
  • Objects falling through a fluid reach terminal velocity.
  • For low speeds this is due to viscocity.
  • Stokes’s Law describes the drag force.

Fd

Fb

Fg

surface tension
Surface Tension
  • Liquid molecules attract each other.
  • At the surface this force is the surface tension.
    • Force per length parallel to the surface.
    • Constant for different liquids

insect leg on water

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