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Cultural Issues. Factors of Production and Economic Growth. Capital (Now, reasonable in HK) Raw materials (Nil in HK) Land (Very little in HK) Labor (Limited in HK) Technology or Technovation (Some technology transfer in the past but very little technovation in HK)

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Cultural issues l.jpg

Cultural Issues

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Factors of Production and Economic Growth

  • Capital (Now, reasonable in HK)

  • Raw materials(Nil in HK)

  • Land (Very little in HK)

  • Labor(Limited in HK)

  • Technology or Technovation

    (Some technology transfer in the past but very little technovation in HK)

    Technology and its development need to be managed effectively for the generation of wealth and resources.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Induced Innovations and Schumpeterian Innovations

  • Induced innovations are those motivated by such signals as shifts in relative prices of inputs into a production process or changes in output prices: e.g. during the second half of the 1970s, increases in energy prices provided a strong incentive for firms to produce innovations that conserved energy or substituted other inputs for energy.

  • Schumpeterian innovations are the result of ‘entrepreneurial behavior’  the perception that it may be possible to exploit some latent demand or to attack existing firms with radically new product or process.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Quality

Value

Time

Cost,

Productivity

Innovation

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Industrial

Progress

Innovation

Quality

Productivity

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Conditions Fostering Innovation

1. Perceived need for some better thing or for something that does not yet exist.

2. Tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity.

3. Willingness to take risk.

4. Belief in the value of new things in general.

5. Belief in the ability to obtain valued benefits from the innovation.

6. Participation in richly connected social networks.

7. Willingness to experiment.

8. Willingness and ability to invest various kinds of resources in the new thing.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Diverse definitions of culture

Topical: Culture consists of everything on a list of topics, or categories, such as social organization, religion, or economy.

Historical: Culture is social heritage, or tradition, that is passed on to future generations.

Behavioral: Culture is shared, learned human behavior, a way of life.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Normative: Culture is ideals, values, or rules for living.

Functional: Culture is the way humans solve problems of adapting to the environment or living together.

Mental: Culture is a complex of ideas, or learned habits, that inhibit impulses and distinguish people from animals.

Structural: Culture consists of patterned and interrelated ideas, symbols, or behaviors.

Symbolic: Culture is based on arbitrarily assigned meanings that are shared by a society.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Culture involves at least three components: what people think, what they do, and the material products they produce.

Thus, mental processes, beliefs, knowledge, and values are parts of culture.

Some anthropologists define culture entirely as mental rules guiding behavior, although often wide divergence exists between the acknowledged rules for correct behavior and what people actually do. Consequently, some researchers pay most attention to human behavior and its material products.

Culture also has several properties: it is shared, learned, symbolic, transmitted cross-generationally, adaptive, and integrated.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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The shared aspect of culture means that it is a social phenomenon; idiosyncratic behavior is not cultural.

Culture is learned, not biologically inherited, and involves arbitrarily assigned, symbolic meanings. For example, Americans are not born knowing that the color white means purity, and indeed this is not a universal cultural symbol.

The human ability to assign arbitrary meaning to any object, behavior or condition makes people enormously creative and readily distinguishes culture from animal behavior. People can teach animals to respond to cultural symbols, but animals do not create their own symbols.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Furthermore, animals have the capability of limited tool manufacture and use, but human tool use is extensive enough to rank as qualitatively different and human tools often carry heavy symbolic meanings.

The symbolic element of human language, especially speech, is again a vast qualitative expansion over animal communication systems.

Speech is infinitely more productive and allows people to communicate about things that are remote in time and space.

Note: the above excerpts are taken from John H. Bodley, From Cultural Anthropology: Tribes, States, and the Global System, 1994.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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What is culture? manufacture and use, but human tool use is extensive enough to rank as qualitatively different and human tools often carry heavy symbolic meanings.

  • Culture is made up of values, beliefs and attitudes.

  • Culture depends on historical experiences of the particular people.

  • History Values & Beliefs Attitudes

  • V, B and A determine the innovative spirit of the people.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Exercise manufacture and use, but human tool use is extensive enough to rank as qualitatively different and human tools often carry heavy symbolic meanings.

Classify each of the eight conditions fostering innovation listed earlier as a value, belief or attitude.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Organizational Beliefs manufacture and use, but human tool use is extensive enough to rank as qualitatively different and human tools often carry heavy symbolic meanings. Required for Innovation

Belief

 in being the best.

 in the importance of details of execution.

 in the importance of people as individuals.

 superior quality and service.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Belief manufacture and use, but human tool use is extensive enough to rank as qualitatively different and human tools often carry heavy symbolic meanings.

 That most members of the organization

should be innovators—and its corollary, a

willingness to support failure.

 In the importance of informality to

enhance communication.

  • in, and recognition of, the importance of

    economic growth and profits.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Exercise: Chinese Culture manufacture and use, but human tool use is extensive enough to rank as qualitatively different and human tools often carry heavy symbolic meanings.

  • What, if any, are the unique values and beliefs of Chinese people? (Confucianism, ‘the Middle Path’, Yin and Yang, …)

  • What role has Chinese history played in developing these values and beliefs?

  • What are the attitudes resulting from these values and beliefs?

  • How have Chinese values changed in the last 50 years?

  • How might the above impacting the innovation culture of contemporary China?

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Hong Kong Culture manufacture and use, but human tool use is extensive enough to rank as qualitatively different and human tools often carry heavy symbolic meanings.

  • Which, if any, of the Chinese values, beliefs and attitudes are evident in today’s HK?

  • List two (each) of the contemporary values, beliefs and attitudes off HK people.

  • What role, if any, has the British rule played in determining HK’s contemporary culture?

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Exercise: manufacture and use, but human tool use is extensive enough to rank as qualitatively different and human tools often carry heavy symbolic meanings. Tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity.

  • Why is tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity important in fostering innovation?

  • Are uncertainty and ambiguity generally tolerated in HK? Answer based on your experiences within your family, in your school, and at City U.

  • Do you think that you can progress fast in a career in HK industry if you exhibit and/or promote such a tolerance? Explain.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Willingness to take risk. manufacture and use, but human tool use is extensive enough to rank as qualitatively different and human tools often carry heavy symbolic meanings.

  • Do HK people like taking risks? Answer with examples.

  • If so, are they good at taking short term or long term risks?

  • Which kind of risk taking is important in fostering innovation?

  • Given your answers to the above questions, what are the prospects for innovation in HK?

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Willingness and ability to invest various kinds of resources in the new thing.

  • Name three major resources required for fostering innovation in a society.

  • Comment on to the extent to which HK has them today.

  • Compare HK’s % GDP spend on R&D with corresponding figures for five other developed countries?

  • Comment on the prospects for HK becoming a world center for innovation and technology.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Inherited in the new thing.

and

learned

Specific

to

Individual

PERSONALITY

Specific `to

group

or category

Learned

CULTURE

Inherited

Universal

HUMAN NATURE

Three Levels of Uniqueness in Human Mental Programming

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Symbols in the new thing.

Heroes

Rituals

Values

Practices

The ‘Onion’ Diagram Manifestation

of Culture at Different Levels of Depth

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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National Cultures in the new thing.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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The Typical HK or in the new thing. Nanyang (overseas Chinese) firm has:

  • Centralization of the power of decision making, usually with a single dominant owner, manager, entrepreneur, founder or father figure.

  • A low level of specialization, with fewer and/or less detailed specialized departments, and with more people responsible for a spread of activities across a number of fields.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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  • Less standardization of activities and thus fewer routine procedures.

  • A relative lack of ancillary departments, such as research and development, labor relations, public relations, market research.

  • Reliance on personal relationships for business transactions.

    [Redding and Wong, “The Psychology of Chinese Organizational Behaviour,” pp. 267-295, The Psychology of Chinese People, Edited by M.H. Bond, Oxford University Press (Hong Kong), 1986.]

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Patronage in Hong Kong procedures.

HK cotton spinners are patriarchal business leaders. “They conferred welfare benefits on their employees as favors, took a personal interest in their subordinates’ behavior not related to work, and disapproved trade union activities…Personalized ties with subordinates are forged in an attempt to counter their centrifugal tendency to set up on their own and become rival competitors. For industries such as spinning and weaving which require a stable workforce to deal with regular business cycles, benevolent paternalism is also one means to retain workers.”

[Wong Siu-Lin, 1986, Modernization and Chinese Culture in Hong Kong, China Quarterly, No. 106, p. 313.]

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Key Principles of procedures.Confucian Teaching[Geert Hofstede, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the mind, McGraw-Hill, 1997.]

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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1. procedures.The stability of a society is based on unequal relationships between people. The wu lan, or five basic relationships are ruler-subject, father-son, older brother-younger brother, husband-wife, and senior friend-junior friend. These relationships are based on mutual and complementary obligations. The junior partner owes the senior respect and obedience. The senior owes the junior partner protection and consideration.

Q. Stability is clearly important when economic growth is driven bythe pursuit of productivity and quality. In contrast, innovation means instability. Is stability critical in the context of innovation?

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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2. procedures.The family is the prototype of all social organizations. A person is not primarily an individual; rather, he or she is a member of a family. Harmony is found in the maintenance of everybody’s face in the sense of dignity, self-respect, and prestige. Social relations should be conducted in such a way that everybody’s face is maintained. Paying respect to someone is called ‘giving face’.

Q. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the family prototype in the context of an organization striving to be nurture innovation as a competitive weapon.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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3. procedures.Virtuous behavior towards others consists of not treating others as one would not like to be treated oneself (The Chinese Golden Rule is negatively phrased!). There is a basic human benevolence towards others, but it does not go as far as the Christian injunction to love one’s enemies. Confucius is supposed to have said that if one should love one’s enemies, what would remain for one’s friends?

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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4. procedures.Virtue with regard to one’s tasks in life consists of trying to acquire skills and education, working hard, not spending more than necessary, being patient, and persevering. Conspicuous consumption is taboo, as is losing one’s temper. Moderation is enjoined in all things.

Q. Discuss to what extent these ‘virtues’ might have contributed towards the spectacular economic growth of the five dragons during the 1980s and 1990s. Comment on their utility in the emerging age of innovation.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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General conditions to be taken care of in business with EC procedures.

[gen Schoon]

  • Language

  • 15 European languages

  • American English (except UK)

  • Cultural Differences

  • “Prussian Perfectionism” (Germany)

  • “British Empire” (UK)

  • “la grande nation” (France)

  • “mediterranes savoire vivre”

  • “Skandinavian coolness”

  • Communication and Management Style

  • National differences are getting smaller

  • But the liveliness is different

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Power and Influence in Organizations procedures.

[Handy 1996]

Influence

Power Source

Overt

Unseen

Physical

Force

Ecology

Resource

Exchange

Position

Magnetism

Rules & Prcdrs

Expert

Persuasion

Personal

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Power Distance Index procedures.(Managing Authority)

PDI indicates the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country/region accept that power is distributed unequally.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Large PDI: procedures.

  • Considerable dependence (or counterdependence) of subordinates on bosses.

  • Subordinates either accept or reject bosses totally (polarization).

    Small PDI:

  • Preference for consultation, i.e. interdependence, between subordinates and bosses.

  • Subordinates quite readily approach and contradict bosses.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri



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Individualism Index Patri(Managing Harmony)

Individualism:Ties between individuals are loose. Everyone is expected to look after himself or herself and his or her immediate family.They prefer

  • Personal time: Having a job that leaves sufficient time for one’s personal or family life.

  • Freedom: Having considerable freedom to adopt one’s approach to the job.

  • Challenge: Have challenging work to dowork from which one can achieve a personal sense of achievement.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Collectivism Patri(Small II): People from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout people’s lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. They prefer

  • Training: Having training opportunities to improve one’s skills or learn new skills.

  • Physical conditions: Having good physical working conditions (good ventilation and lighting, adequate work space, etc.)

  • Use of skills: Being able to fully use one’s skills and abilities on the job.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Managing Harmony Patri

[Hofstede 1982, p.18]

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Western Societies Patri

  • Workplace

  • Run the system impersonally

  • Appointments are made,

  • promotions given, rules applied

  • impersonally

  • Having a brother-in-law as

  • one’s assistant is embarassing

  • Nuclear Family

  • Private

  • Personal

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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TENSION Patri

Asian Societies

Impersonal

Workplace

Management

Personalized

Workplace

Management

Extended Family

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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“Asian ‘Personalistic’ Ways of Life” Patri

  • Friends and relatives matter, friends of relatives matter, relatives of friends matter,,,

  • Wisdom of age matters

  • How could people with whom there were personal relationships one minute outside work be treated impersonally just like any one else half an hour later?

  • Must a helping hand to friends, family, ethnic group or tribe become nepotism?

  • Is Western-style impersonalism in every aspect of management an unavoidable condition of effective modern organization? Or have the Japanese or Chinese or other societies found an alternative way? [Hickson 1995]

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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“Characteristic Chinese Small Business in HK” [Hickson 1995]

  • Paternalistic and personalistic.

  • Owner, frequently the head of the family, manages by direct personal involvement.

  • He brings in family members and others (with ability) he can trust. Benevolence is exchanged for loyalty.

  • Formalization is low. Written instructions, procedures and rules are minimal.

  • Supply-chain links dominated by owner’s relatives and friends. Informal links. Sometimes, exchange of directorships that follow personal links rather than financial interest.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri



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Collectivism in Hong Kong Patri

Chinese collectivists give priority to considerations of how their behavior might affect their standing within the group.

Hong Kong Chinese are more likely than Americans to pursue conflict if the stakes involved are high and if the other person is from an out-group.

[Leung Kwok, 1988, Some determinants of conflict avoidance, J. Cross Cultural Psychology, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 125-136.]

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Individualism and Prosperity Patri

[Hofstede 1983] plotted per capita GNP in 1970 versus Individualism Index for a number of nations and found a positive correlation, i.e., wealthier nations are more individualistic. But,

Is individualism the cause of prosperity?

Or, is prosperity the cause of increase in individualism?

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Masculinity Index Patri(Managing Oneself)

Masculine Societies (large MI): They prefer

  • Earnings: Having an opportunity for high earnings.

  • Recognition: Getting the recognition one deserves when one does a good job.

  • Advancement: Having an opportunity for advancement to higher level jobs.

  • Challenge: Have challenging work to dowork from which one can get a personal sense of accomplishment.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Feminine Societies Patri (Small MI): They prefer

  • Manager: Having a good working relationship with one’s direct supervisor.

  • Cooperation: Working with people who cooperate well with one another.

  • Living area: Living in an area desirable to oneself or one’s family.

  • Employment security: Having the security that one is able to work for one’s company as long as one wants to.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri



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Sectorial Factors in HK Patri

Public Sector Managers value advancement opportunities, and security for employment (Feminine?).

Private Sector Managers value opportunities for advancements and high earnings (Masculine?).

[Chau, Irene Hau-siu, 1988, Work related values of middle managers in the private and public sectors, Proc. 1988 Academy of International Business South East Asia Regional Conf., Bangkok, June 23-5, A14-25.]

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Uncertainty Avoidance Index Patri(Managing Uncertainty)

UAI indicates the extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by uncertain or unknown situations.

  • High UAI  increased anxiety, more expressiveness. Low UAI  more internalization, higher incidence of coronary diseases.

  • Paradoxically, people with high UA tend to reduce ambiguity. They are often prepared to take risks to reduce ambiguity.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri



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Individu- Patri

alistic

Collecti-

vistic

Low

PDI

High

PDI

Low

UAI

High

UAI

Feminine

Masculine

Anglo-Saxon (USA, UK, Australia)

Scandinavian (Sweden, Denmark, Norway

Germany

[Handy 1996]

[Hofstede 1980]

[Mant 1983]

Japan

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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The 5 Patrith Dimension: LongversusShort Time Orientation

LTO: a capacity/willingness to

- adapt tradition to new situations,

- amass through thrifty use of scarce resources

- subordinate one’s own interests for a purpose

- be virtuous.

STO: expectation of quick results, and a concern with “face” and truth.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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LTO Ranking Patri

High LTO to low LTO:

PRC, HK, Taiwan, Japan, S. Korea, Brazil, India, Thailand, Singapore, Netherlands, Bangladesh, Sweden, Poland, Germany FR, Australia, New Zealand, USA, UK, Zimbabwe, Canada, Philippines, Nigeria, Pakistan

[Hofstede 1991, 1997]

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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But, if HK is high on LTO, Patri

Why

  • is HK weak in technological innovation?

  • does HK spend a miniscule of proportion of its wealth on R & D which is essential for sustained technological innovation?

    Why is there the perception that HK people are only interested in quick money?

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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American Style Management Patri[Peters and Waterman 1982]

  • A bias for action (high MI)

  • Being close to the customer

  • Autonomy and Entrepreneurship (high MI and II)

  • Productivity through people (high expectations of productive performance (i.e., high MI and II)

  • Hands-on, value-driven

  • Stick to the knitting

  • Simple form, lean staff

  • Simultaneous loose-tight properties (decentralization of authority goes with toleration of uncertainty)

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Organizational Cultures Patri

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Cultural Relativism Patri

  • It is futile to look for absolutes (good/bad, superior/inferior, etc.) while evaluating cultures.

  • Everything is relative and must be interpreted in a context. What is a strength in one context may turn out to be a weakness in another.

  • What is ‘good’ in the eras of productivity and quality may turn out to be ‘bad’ in an era of innovation.

  • What is ‘good’ culture in an environment of operations may turn out to be ‘bad’ in a project environment.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Contingency Theory Patri

The appropriate culture is contingent upon the following influencing factors:

  • History and ownership

  • Size

  • Technology

  • Goals and objectives

  • The environment

  • The people

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Four Patri Reference Models for Organizations

0

Village

Market

Family

SGP

HK

UK

India

USA

Uncertainty Avoidance Index

Ger

Aus

Pak

Gua

Jap

Well-oiled

Machine

Pyramid

of people

100

0

100

Power Distance Index

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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The Power Culture Patri(The Web)

[Handy 1996]

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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  • Patron god: “Zeus, the all-powerful head of gods who ruled by whim and impulse, by thunderbolt and shower of gold from Mount Olympus.”

  • Central power source, with rays of power spreading from the that central figure.

  • Typical of small entrepreneurial organizations and family owned businesses. GEC of UK. Some trade unions. Some property, trading and finance companies.

  • Few rules. Little bureaucracy. Few committees.

  • Control exercised through careful selection of individuals and occasional summonses from the center.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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  • Proud and strong. Ability to move quickly. by whim and impulse, by thunderbolt and shower of gold from Mount Olympus.”

  • Resource power is the major power base.

  • Judge by results. Tolerant of means.

  • Can be as bad as effective depending upon the people in power. When the spider dies, the web dies. Succession issue is important.

  • Size is a problem. Web can break if too many activities are undertaken.

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  • Patron god: Apollo; the god of reason. Patri

  • Pillars: functions or specialties (finance, purchasing, production, etc.).

  • Control through procedures for rules (job descriptions, authority definitions), communications (require no. of copies of memoranda), and settlement of disputes.

  • Coordination by narrow band of seniors.

  • Position power is the major power base. Personal power is frowned upon.

  • Performance above role requirement not required.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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  • Will succeed in stable environment because of monopoly (the Civil Service), long product life cycles (automobile, oil, life insurance, and retail banking), and seller’s market.

  • The Greek temple shakes when the ground shakes, when there is change. Then collapse or replacement of top management takes over.

  • When stable, provides security and predictability to individuals. When change occurs, there is much frustration.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri



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  • Patron gods: Athena, the warrior goddess; and Odysseus, the commando leader.

  • Project-oriented. Team culture. Right people selected and given freedom. Matrix organization. Influence and expertise are the power bases.

  • Some strands of the net are thicker than others. Power concentrates at interstices.

  • Extremely adaptable through reconfiguration.

  • Personal control over work. Judgment by results.

  • Works well when flexibility, sensitivity, and creativity are required.

  • Can’t build economies of scale or depths of expertise. Can’t build a factory.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri



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  • Patron god: Dionysus, the god of the self-oriented individual.

  • The individual is the central point. Organization exists to serve his aspirations.

  • Can exist when there is no super-ordinate objective: Barrister’s chambers, architect’s partnerships, hippy communes, social groups, families, some small consultancy firms.

  • Many individuals aspire for it. Very few organizations practice it.

  • Only the original creators achieve any success. Soon the organization imposes its own objectives and it might change to power or role culture.

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Typical progression of individual.

an organization

Different cultures

in different

organizational units

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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[Handy 1996] individual.

Policy

Crisis

Innova-

tion

  • Dominant activity

  • in a unit:

  • Steady state;

  • Innovation;

  • Crisis (breakdown);

  • Policy.

Steady State

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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Mintzberg’s Seven Types of Organization individual.

  • The entrepreneurial (Power);

  • The machine (Role);

  • The professional (Task);

  • The Innovative (Person);

  • The missionary (?);

  • The diversified;

  • The political (a law unto itself). [Handy 1996]

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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The Seven S Diagram individual.

[Pascale and Athos, The Art of Japanese Management]

Strategy

Cold Triangle

Systems

Structure

Super-ordinate goals

Warm Square

Staff

Skills

Style

Cultural Issues, Managemnet of Technological Innovation, KV Patri


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References ++ individual.

[Chen 1995] Min Chen, Asian Management Systems, International Thomson Business Press, London.

[Handy 1996] Charles Handy, Understanding Organizations, 4th edition, Penguin Books, London.

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