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Introduction, Review of Biomolecules

Introduction, Review of Biomolecules

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Introduction, Review of Biomolecules

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  1. Introduction, Review of Biomolecules Lecture 1, Medical Biochemistry

  2. Lecture 1 Outline • Review some basic chemical nomenclature and concepts • Review the structural and functional features of different biomolecules • Discuss the human genome project and the future of molecular medicine

  3. Common Functional Groups

  4. Common Condensation Reactions

  5. Common Enzymatic Conversions Oxidation-Reduction Phosphorylation Phosphatase

  6. Terms/Concepts to Review • Hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity • Aromatic and aliphatic • Ionic, or electrostatic, interactions • Hydrogen bonds • van der Waals interactions • Covalent bonds

  7. Major Causes of Disease(from Table 1.1 in text) • Physical Agents: mechanical trauma, temperature extremes, radiation, electric shock • Chemical Agents: toxic compounds, drugs • Biologic Agents: viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, biochemistry professors • Genetic Disease • Oxygen Lack: loss of blood, decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of blood, mitochondrial poisoning

  8. Disease Causes (cont.) • Immunologic Reactions: anaphylaxis, autoimmune disorders • Nutritional Imbalances: deficiencies, excesses • Endocrine Imbalances: hormonal deficiencies/excesses

  9. Two-Way Street: Medicine and Biochemistry

  10. Sugars/Carbohydrates

  11. Membrane Lipids

  12. Sterols

  13. Fatty Acids Saturated and Unsaturated

  14. Which Compound Would be Found in a Membrane?

  15. Nucleic Acids: Components of RNA and DNA

  16. DNA: double helix

  17. Adenosine Triphosphate - ATP

  18. Amino Acids:Protein Building Blocks

  19. Levels of Protein Structure

  20. Human Genome Project • A rough draft is complete, >90% sequenced • Represents approximately 75,000 human genes (estimated range: 30,000 to 120,000) • Based on the DNA from six individuals; thus provides little information regarding genetic diversity within the population • Estimated that 95% of our DNA content is not important; represents evolutionary “baggage” • Highlights the need for continued sequencing of genomes from other organisms to identify essential genes and their functions

  21. Proteomics • Proteomics – the study of how all proteins interact with each other in a cell • Estimate 50,000 to 2,000,000 human proteins • The amino acid sequence of a protein can be determined from the gene sequence, but in most cases, this cannot be used to predict overall 3D-structure or function; usually this is done by X-ray crystallography • Only about 1% of proteins have had their 3D structures determined

  22. The Next 40 years in Medicine • Predictions made by Francis Collins M.D./Ph.D., director of the National Human Genome Research Institute

  23. Predictions - 2010 • Primary care providers will practice genetic medicine • Preimplantation diagnoses of fertilized embryos will be widely available • Gene therapy will be routinely used for a few conditions

  24. Predictions - 2020 • Gene-based designer drugs will be marketed for some diseases • Cancer therapies will target the molecular fingerprint of each tumor type • Drug susceptibility will be determined before a prescription is written • Genomic intervention via homologous recombination will be used to insert genes without interfering with neighboring genes

  25. Predictions - 2030 • Human aging genes will be fully catalogued; clinical trials designed to increase life span will be initiated • Computer models of human cells will be available for research • Complete genome sequencing will cost less than $1,000 per person

  26. Predictions - 2040 • Comprehensive genomics-based healthcare will be standard. • Individualized preventive treatments will be available and effective. • Gene therapies and gene-based drug therapies will be available for most diseases. • Newborn testing for disease pre-disposition in adulthood will be feasible. • The average lifespan will reach 90 yrs.