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STUDENTS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS. Chapter 1 –Overview of Today’s Special Education Karen Gatto & Roni Kramer Winter 2009. Who are Special Education personnel?. Females 85% White teachers 86% 14% have a disability Average age 43 59% masters Average 14 years experience

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Students with special needs l.jpg
STUDENTS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS

Chapter 1 –Overview of Today’s Special Education

Karen Gatto & Roni Kramer

Winter 2009


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Who are Special Education personnel?

  • Females 85%

  • White teachers 86%

  • 14% have a disability

  • Average age 43

  • 59% masters

  • Average 14 years experience

    Paraprofessionals make up 87% of non teaching staff. During 01-02 there were 577,476 non teaching staff


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STATISTICS

  • 6 MILLION, 6-21, 9.05 % 2005

  • 272,454 BIRTH – 2

  • 680,142 PRESCHOOLERS, 3-5

  • 1.5 to1 and 3.5 to 1 male-female range

  • Population of students 6-21 grew 12% from 90-99, students with disabilities grew 30%

  • Huge growth in numbers!


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CATEGORIES 2003-2004

  • LD – 47.4%

  • SI - 18.7%

  • ED – 8.0%

  • OHI – 7.5%

  • MD – 2.2%

  • MR – 9.6%

  • H I - 1.2%

  • O I – 1.1%

  • AUTISM – 2.3%


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CLASSIFICATION AS SWD

  • PROS?

  • CONS?

  • When classifying, there must be data to support that disability interferes with learning in the general education setting

    PAST TERMINOLOGY COMPARED TO TODAY

    Figure 1-4 and Figure 1-5


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A HISTORY OF DISCRIMINATION

  • EXCLUSION OF STUDENTS WITH DISABILITES

  • MISCLASSIFICATION

  • REVOLUTION OF THE 70’S

    • BROWN VS Bd of Educ

    • CIVIL RIGHTS ACTIVISTS


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POSTSECONDARY OUTCOMES

  • FROM NUMBERS SERVED TO ADULT OUTCOMES

  • TRANSITION PLANNING

    Fig. 1-7


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-- Adult Outcomes and Goals

  • Equal opportunity

  • Full participation

  • Independent living

  • Economic self sufficiency


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IDEA – Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) in the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • must have a disability that causes the need for special instruction

  • 1975- PL 95-142 Education of all Handicapped Students Act

  • 1990 - IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Act)

    Part B, ages 3-21

  • 1997 – a) low expectations b) lack of research based

  • 2002 – birth to 2, option of serving at risk of having delays and those that are diagnosed


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IDEA 1997 Major Features Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • Free appropriate public education (FAPE)

  • Appropriate evaluation

  • Individualized Education Plan (IEP)

  • Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • Parent/student participation in making decisions

  • Procedural safeguards

  • Increase role of general educators

  • Promote achievement

  • Prevent inappropriate placements - minorities


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IDEA Individuals with Disabilities Improvement Act Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • 2004 – many changes in an effort to reduce paperwork and procedural process

  • Alignment with NCLB

  • Emphasis on accountability

  • RTI – a pre referral strategy utilized by building level pre referral teams (or Instructional Support Teams)


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IDEA 2004 Major Themes Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • Timely evaluations (60 calendar days from 60 school days)

  • Promote research based instruction

  • Improving academic and functional outcomes

  • Streamline discipline procedures

  • Less adversarial dispute resolution

  • CSE membership

  • Alignment with NCLB


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Discipline – IDEA regulates how school can discipline SWD Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • Cannot expel or suspend the SWD for more than 10 school days

  • Manifestation determination – when the school proposes to suspend for more than 10 days, there must be a manifestation determination

  • If nexus, school can suspend for more than 10 days however, education must still be provided in an interim alternative educational setting (IAES)

  • If there is a nexus, FBA and BIP

  • If weapons, drugs, or injury IAES for up to 45 days w/o manifestation meeting


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NYS Mandates in Part 200 Regulations Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

The IEP requires:

  • Transition services to be in effect beginning with the school year when the student turns age 15

  • Short term objectives and benchmarks only for preschoolers and students taking NYSAA


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FUNDING Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • STATES GET MONEY FROM FEDS IF IN COMPLIANCE WITH LAWS

  • HIGH COSTS OF SPECIAL ED – BIG PROBLEM FOR SCHOOL DISTRICTS

  • 18% ACTUAL FUNDING – PROMISED 40%

  • It costs approx. $1,086 per child to go through the process of referral, evaluation, and IEP development

  • Average expenditure per out of district placement is between $50,000 and 100,000 per year


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OTHER FEDERAL LAWS Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • REHABILITATION ACT – help for veterans

    Now also applies to vocational funding for SWD

  • supported work

  • job coaching

  • assistive technology


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ANTI DISCRIMINATION LAWS Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • ADA – AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT

  • SECTION 504 OF THE REHABILITATION ACT


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SIX PRINCIPLES Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • ZERO REJECT

  • NON DISCRIMINATORY EVALUATION

  • APPROPRIATE EDUCATION

  • LEAST RESTRICTIVE ENVIRONMENT

  • PROCEDURAL DUE PROCESS

  • PARENT AND STUDENT PARTICIPATION


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The Process Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • RTI

  • Referral

  • Evaluation

  • CPSE/CSE meeting

  • Classification

  • Program and Services

  • Annual reviews and Reevaluations


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RTI - Response to Intervention Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • A systems change which involves the use of data to identify and intervene with at risk students


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Why RTI? Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

NCLB and IDEA 2004

  • Accountability

  • Inclusion of all students

  • Evidence based practices

  • Highly qualified teachers


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RTI Outcomes Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • More Frequent Student Measurement

  • A Reduction in Disproportionate Placement

    of Students of Diverse Cultural/Linguistic Backgrounds

  • Reduction of Special Education Placements

  • Increased Performance on Standardized Tests

  • Enhanced Collaboration Among Staff


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ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • Evidence based curriculum

  • Building/District screening assessment

  • Progress monitoring system

  • Multi tiered intervention model

  • Problem-solving method for interventions


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Academic Systems Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

Behavioral Systems

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions

  • Individual Students

  • Assessment-based

  • High Intensity

  • Of longer duration

  • Targeted Group Interventions

  • Some students (at-risk)

  • High efficiency

  • Rapid response

  • Targeted Group Interventions

  • Some students (at-risk)

  • High efficiency

  • Rapid response

  • Universal Interventions

  • All students

  • Preventive, proactive

  • Universal Interventions

  • All settings, all students

  • Preventive, proactive

75-85%

75-85%

RTI - School-Wide Systems for Student Success

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions

  • Individual Students

  • Assessment-based

  • Intense, durable procedures

5-10%

5-10%

10-15%

10-15%


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RTI and Learning Disability Classification Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • LD criteria is different under this model The achievement/discrepancy requirement is gone

  • Does require collection of data

  • Requires a written plan describing the process


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RTI in the Secondary Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • Tied into NCLB requirements

  • Team process is critical ( Problem Solving method)

  • Delivery of interventions


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PRE REFERRAL CONSIDERATIONS Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • RTI:

  • Appropriate instruction in general education classes

  • Screenings

  • Levels of targeted intervention

  • Application of information to make educational decisions

  • Criteria for determining levels of intervention is developed by the district


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Referrals when using RTI Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • School district must initiate a referral and promptly request parent consent to evaluate a student who:

    • Has not made adequate progress after an appropriate period of time when provided instruction in a “response to intervention” process


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DEFINITION OF SPECIAL Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)EDUCATION

  • Specially designed instruction at no cost to parents, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability”Another definition is provided by Tom Hehir: “the role of Special Education should be to minimize the impact of disability and maximize the opportunities for children with disabilities to participate in general education in their natural community

  • SPECIAL EDUCATION IS A SERVICE, NOT A PLACE!!!


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THE CPSE/CSE PURPOSE Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • Each school district is required to establish a multi disciplinary Committee of Pre-School Special Education (CPSE) and Committee of Special Education (CSE) to:

  • Coordinate evaluations

  • Recommend programs/services for students with disabilities *

  • Determine eligibility *

  • Develop IEP

  • Report to BOE


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CSE/CPSE PROCESS Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • Referral: Identifying children who may need special education services

  • Evaluation: Data collection through assessment

  • Recommendation: Determining eligibility

  • Implementation: arranging services, supports, and programs

  • Annual Review: updating program yearly

  • Reevaluation: updating tests and evaluation information every 3 years unless the district and parent agree that reevaluation is not necessary


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CSE Referral Timeline Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

New Initial Referral Received

  • Prior Notice of Initial referral and request for consent to evaluate sent to parents

    Initial Evals completed within 60 calendar days from receipt of consent Unless parent and district agree to another timeline

    Psychological, Social History, Classroom observation, other appropriate evals.

  • Prior notice provided to parents regarding CSE meeting

    CSE Meeting

  • Prior notice of CSE recommendations to parent

    CSE recommendation to BOE

  • Prior notice of BOE recommendation

    Consent for placement

  • Placement initiated 60 school days from consent to implementation


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Individual Evaluations and Reevaluations Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

60 calendar days to complete evaluation

Parent and district can agree to another timeline if:

  • Child moves into district and evaluation was initiated in prior district

  • Agree to determine how child responds to research based intervention (RTI)


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Who may initiate a referral? Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

Referral for initial evaluations

  • Parent

  • School District or Commissioner or designee responsible for providing education to students with disabilities

  • Classroom Teacher cannot make referral


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Request for Referral Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • Professional staff members of the district the student resides in or private school student attends

  • Physician

  • Judicial officer

  • Student, age 18 or emancipated minor


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EVALUATION COMPONENTS Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • Social History

  • Psychological Evaluation

  • Educational Evaluation

  • Classroom Observation

  • Physical

  • Evaluation in any other area of concern, i.e. Speech/Language, Psychiatric, OT


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Sources of Information Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

Variety of sources

  • Aptitude and achievement tests

  • Parent input

  • Teacher recommendations

  • Physical condition

  • Social and cultural background

  • Adaptive behavior

  • Participants at CSE must offer written input

  • if influencing decisions made at meetings

  • Ensure information form all sources is documented and carefully considered


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Observation Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • Required component of the initial evaluation

  • Observation in the student’s learning environment (including regular classroom setting)

  • For student less than school age or out of school – environment appropriate for student that age


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Federal CPSE/CSE Members Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • Parent of student with disability

  • At least one general education teacher

  • School representative knowledgeable about general curriculum and resources

  • Educational specialist who can interpret test results

  • Others who have knowledge or special expertise

  • Student, if appropriate


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NY State CPSE/CSE membership Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • Federal CPSE/CSE members

  • School Psychologist

  • School Physician, if required

  • Parent Member

  • For CPSE, representative of municipality is often included but not mandated


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Changes to CPSE membership Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

Participation of the Early Intervention (EI 0-2 years old) representative

  • This is a member at the request of the parent of the student transitioning from EI to preschool special education (CPSE)


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Changes to CSE Participation Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

District is required to obtain parental consent (or student consent if emancipated) before inviting representatives from adult agencies to a CSE


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Subcommittee on Special Education (SCSE) Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • Sub-CSE function as the CSE except when the following are considered:

  • Initial placement

  • When reviewing new psychological

  • Moving a student to a more restrictive setting

    Membership: Sub-CSE chairperson, parent, student (when appropriate), special education teacher, general education teacher.

    **CPSE does not allow subcommittee meetings


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Role of General Education Teacher Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • Reports on the student’s current levels of functioning (including strengths)

  • Participates in the development, review and revision of the student’s IEP

  • Shares info regarding the general education curriculum


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When Can Districts and Parents Reach Agreement? Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • Attendance at CSE meeting is not necessary when member’s area is not discussed

  • Excusal of member from CSE when member’s area is discussed can be implemented with 5 days prior written agreement

  • Changes to the IEP without a meeting after the annual review are allowed


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When is Member Attendance not necessary? Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

Parent and district may agree in writing for the following:

  • If area will not be discussed

  • District can request to parent in writing 5 days in advance of meeting

  • Parent can request/agree at any time

  • Does not apply to attendance of:

    • Parent of student; or

    • Municipality appointee (CPSE)


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When can a Member be Excused Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)?

  • The written request of district must include written input of member to be excused

  • Excusals are applicable to any meeting including an initial eligibility meeting


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Eligibility Determinations Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)200.4(C)

A student shall not be determined eligible for special education if the determinant factor is:

  • Lack of APPROPRIATE instruction in reading or math

  • Or limited English proficiency


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13 DISABILITY Categories Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)Part 200 Regulations

  • Autism

  • Deafness

  • Deaf-Blindness

  • Emotional disturbance

  • Hearing impairment

  • Visual impairment

  • Other health impaired

  • Speech- Language impairment

  • Orthopedic impairment

  • Multiple disabilities

  • Mental retardation

  • Learning disability

  • Traumatic Brain injury


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Learning Disabilities Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

May not rely on any single procedure

Must include observation of student’s academic performance in regular classroom

  • Before referral

  • With parent consent, after the referral

  • Must be conducted by CSE member

    Q. If you use an RTI process, must you still conduct a complete individual evaluation?

  • A. Yes

    No need to complete a psychological

    evaluation if there is evidence that one is not needed


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Are learning problems the result of lack of appropriate instruction in math and reading?

  • Data that demonstrates that prior to, or as part of the referral process, the student was provided appropriate instruction in regular education settings, delivered by qualified personnel;

  • Data-based documentation of repeated assessments of achievement at reasonable intervals, reflecting formal assessment of student progress during instruction

    • Information must have been provided to parents prior to referral


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Who makes the LD determination? instruction in math and reading?

CSE

  • Must include student’s regular education teacher and

  • At least one person qualified to conduct individual diagnostic examinations (e.g., school psychologist, speech/language pathologist, reading teacher)


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State Criteria for LD instruction in math and reading?

  • Student does not achieve adequately for age or standards;

    and

  • Student either:

    Does not make progress (RTI)

    or

    Exhibits a pattern of strengths and weaknesses in:

    • performance, achievement, or both

    • Relative to age, standards, or intellectual development


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3. Not result of: instruction in math and reading?

  • Visual, hearing or motor ability

  • Mental retardation

  • Emotional disturbance

  • Cultural factors

  • Environmental or economic disadvantage; or

  • Limited English proficiency


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Use of significant discrepancy instruction in math and reading?

  • State does not prohibit its use

  • Except that effective on or after July 1, 2012 (5 years), a school district shall not use the severe discrepancy criteria for:

    • LD determination in reading for students in grade K-4


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Written report of LD determination instruction in math and reading?

  • Does student have a LD?

  • Basis for making the determination

  • Relevant behavior noted during the observation and the relationship of the behavior to the student’s academic functioning

  • Educationally relevant medical findings

    5. Does the student meet the State’s criteria?


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  • Determination of the CSE regarding exclusionary factors instruction in math and reading?

    7. If the student participated in RTI:

    • Instructional strategies used and the student centered data collected; and

    • Documentation that parents were notified

      • Amount and nature of performance data

      • General education strategies used for increasing the student’s rate of learning; and

      • Right to request a special education evaluation


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Questions instruction in math and reading?

  • GIVEN THAT THERE IS ROOM FOR IMPROVEMENT IN ACHIEVING RESULTS FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES, WHAT ROLE WILL YOU PLAY IN MAKING IT POSSIBLE FOR STUDENTS TO MAKE PROGRESS IN THE SPECIAL AND GENERAL CURRICULUM SO THAT THEIR LONG TERM RESULTS ARE AS POSITIVE AS POSSIBLE???????

  • Reflect on questions at end of chapter


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