1905 to 1917 changes in pre revolutionary russia
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1905 to 1917: Changes in Pre-Revolutionary Russia. 1905 vs. 1917. 1905 - Half a Revolution Similarities Tsar weak from failed war -- Russo-Japanese War Workers organized independently. Formed SOVIETS!! Peasants and parts of army sided with Soviets. 1905 vs. 1917: The Soviets.

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1905 vs 1917
1905 vs. 1917

1905 - Half a Revolution

  • Similarities

    • Tsar weak from failed war -- Russo-Japanese War

    • Workers organized independently

  • Formed SOVIETS!!

  • Peasants and parts of army sided with Soviets


  • 1905 vs 1917 the soviets
    1905 vs. 1917: The Soviets

    • The embryo of working class revolutionary power

    • Dual nature

      • Created by struggle -- Fills vacuum of power of a general strike

      • Used to advance struggle -- Capable of organizing an all-out of insurrection

    • Repeated in 1917 and in 1918-19 Germany

      • So not specific to backwards Russia


    1905 vs 1917 cont
    1905 vs. 1917 cont.

    • 1905 Revolution failed because:

      • Revolutionary forces unprepared

      • Liberal bourgeoisie got cold feet and sided with Tsar

      • Tsar brutally repressed Revolution

    • After 1905 important changes...

    Vs.


    The dead years 1906 1914
    The Dead Years: 1906-1914

    • The Bourgeoisie moves closer to the Tsar

      • and more dependent on foreign capital

    • Proletariat disorganized

      • 3 peaks of activity: 1905, 1914, 1917

      • Grows but still small compared to the...


    The peasantry
    The Peasantry

    • Huge majority of population

      • about 75% of total population

      • So necessary ally of proletariat

    • Most lived on communal land

      • but too many to be supported

      • Peasants demanded land

      • The Agrarian Problem


    The peasantry cont
    The Peasantry cont.

    • Government's Solution -- 1906 Land Reform

      • Turn upper peasantry against mass of poorer peasants

        • called the Kulaks

      • Made huge rural proletariat

      • Still many very poor peasants

    • Not a final solution

      • Kulaks wanted more land too

      • Most importanly, peasants and rural proletariat not satisfied

    • But peasants needed something...


    Proletarian leadership
    Proletarian Leadership!!!

    And the proletariat needed the peasants:

    “The law of combined development of backward countries – in the sense of a peculiar mixture of backward elements with the most modern factors – here rises before us in its most finished form, and offers a key to the fundamental riddle of the Russian revolution. If the agrarian problem, as a heritage from the barbarism of the old Russian history, had been solved by the bourgeoisie, if it could have been solved by them, the Russian proletariat could not possibly have come to power in 1917. In order to realise the Soviet state, there was required a drawing together and mutual penetration of two factors belonging to completely different historic species: a peasant war – that is, a movement characteristic of the dawn of bourgeois development – and a proletarian insurrection, the movement signalising its decline. That is the essence of 1917.” (37)


    Russia and the war
    Russia and the War

    • Not quite an imperial country and not quite a colony

      • Forced into participation

      • But not equal to England, France, or Germany


    Russia and the war1
    Russia and the War

    • Army totally unprepared

      • 2.5 million peasants and workers killed

      • England and France used Russian soldiers to fight

    The ruling classes meanwhile...


    The ruling classes dumb and dumber
    The Ruling Classes: Dumb and Dumber

    Or... Obsolete and More Obsoleter

    • So not just evil or greedy

    • Historically incapable of ruling

    • Tsar - No basis in industrializing society


    The ruling classes dumb and dumber1
    The Ruling Classes: Dumb and Dumber

    • Bourgeoisie incapable of ruling

      • since 1905 Revolution, allied closely with Tsar

      • also subordinate to foreign capital

      • But get very rich off of war profits


    Ruling classes the dance of the dumas
    Ruling Classes: The Dance of the Dumas

    Duma unites behind the war effort

    • 1915 - forms the Progressive Bloc

      • Kadets (the bourgeoisie), and other liberal groups

      • united because of "common gains, external defeats, and internal dangers" (19)

        • most importantly a "union called forth by the danger of social revolution." (20)

    • Thought Tsar would give concessions because danger of revolution

    • But...


    The dance of the dumas
    The Dance of the Dumas

    • Duma dissolved in September 1915

      • no protest from members

    • 2nd try - May 1916 Dissolved

    • 3rd try - November 1916

      Dissolved

    • 4th try - February 14, 1917 Only real solution...



    Proletariat during the war
    Proletariat During the War

    Proletariat grows by leaps and bounds

    • 1914, before war, moving towards revolutionary situation

    • But war paralyzes workers... temporarily

      • almost 40% proletariat drafted


    Proletariat during the war1
    Proletariat During the War

    • And no proletarian leadership

      • 2nd International's opportunism confused workers

      • Bolshevik leaders in Duma all arrested


    Revolutionary leadership
    Revolutionary Leadership

    • Mensheviks vs. Bolsheviks

      • Mensheviks strongest during downturns (1908 - 1912)

        • Bolsheviks strongest during upsurges (1905, 1914-17)

      • Mensheviks formed pro-war committees with bourgeoisie

        • Bolsheviks specifically targeted by government

      • Bolsheviks more adaptable

        • at first supported the war

        • quickly turned against and agitated workers towards "Revolutionary Defeatism"


    By leaps and bounds
    By Leaps and Bounds

    Slowly proletariat fights back

    • Food riots lead the way

      • Women, children, and elderly could act more easily

      • broke "war hypnosis and laid road to strikes" (28)

    • Next, economic strikes

      • textile workers in vanguard


    By leaps and bounds1
    By Leaps and Bounds

    But ruling classes push back

    • War was destroying economy

      • so bourgeoisie resisted all concessions

        • strikes limited to individual factories have no effect

    • Government becomes more brutal - Kills strikers

      This leads to...


    By leaps and bounds2
    By Leaps and Bounds

    Political Strikes!!!

    • 1915 - 2.5x fewer political strikers than economic strikers

    • 1916 - 2x fewer

    • 1917 - 6x more political strikers!



    The monarchies time s up
    The Monarchies: Time's Up

    Differences:

    • Personalities

      • French King Louis XVI had "dubious kindliness"

      • Russian Tsar had "affability"

    • Concessions

      • Louis called for Estates General

        • like Duma

      • Tsar Nicholas called for Dumas and semi-constitution after 1905

      • Concessions only ever partial

        • Never threatened Monarchy itself


    Monarchies time s up1
    Monarchies: Time's Up

    • Historical moment

      • French Revolution earlier (1789)

        • So had more support of the liberal bourgeoisie

      • Russian Revolution later (1917)

    • So less support of liberal bourgeoisie and nobles

    • Especially after 1905 Revolution attempt

  • But in both cases all turned on Monarchs because...


  • Monarchies time s up2
    Monarchies: Time's Up

    Time's Up!!!!

    • Monarchic class society outdated

    • Nobilities and liberal bourgeoisie saw this

      • at first go along with monarchs

      • eventually turn against when all "reasonable society" goes against monarchs (pages 58, 72-3)


    Summary laws of revolution

    Summary:

    Laws of Revolution


    What are the laws of revolution
    What are the laws of revolution?

    • What is uneven and combined development?

    • How did we see certain classes outlive their historical role?


    What are the laws of revolution1
    What are the laws of revolution?

    Questions going forward:

    • Why do the masses revolt?

      • What pushes them past just reforms?

    • What role do revolutionaries have to make revolutions?

    • Other questions...?