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MEOR Using Facultative Anaerobic Indigenous Consortia and Bio-surfactants. Xiaofang Wei 1 Xingli Li 2 Keyu Liu 3 Yuehui She 4 Jing Wang 1 1 China University of Petroleum 2 GRI, Jiangsu Oilfield 3 CSIRO Petroleum 4 Yangtz University. Acknowledgements. CSIRO WfO Flagship

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slide1

MEOR Using Facultative Anaerobic Indigenous Consortia and Bio-surfactants

Xiaofang Wei1 Xingli Li2Keyu Liu3 Yuehui She4 Jing Wang1

1 China University of Petroleum

2 GRI, Jiangsu Oilfield

3 CSIRO Petroleum

4 Yangtz University

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • CSIRO WfO Flagship
  • Biochemical Engineering Laboratory, CUP, Beijing
    • Yijng Luo, Mang Lu, Peiwen Zheng, Zhongzhi Zhang
  • The Langfang Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, PetroChina
    • Core-flooding technical support

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia

presentation outline
Presentation Outline
  • Background of the MEOR study
  • Nutrient stimulation
    • MEOR screening and assessment
  • Bacteria selection and metabolite analysis
    • Oil spreading and blood agar lysis methods
    • Emulsification
    • Interfacial tension (IFT)
  • Core flooding experiments
    • Experimental procedure
    • Results
  • Conclusions and Future work

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia

enhanced oil recovery

Unrecovered oil range

from 1-2 trillion barrels

Enhanced Oil Recovery

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia

world average oil price
World Average Oil Price

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia

oil consumption bp statistical review 2006
Oil Consumption (BP Statistical Review, 2006)

1 km

l

l

Australia: 0.9 mbbl/day

China: 7.0

US: 20.6

World: 82.5

US 1 cubic km oil / year

China

Australia

United States

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia

eor portfolio
EOR Portfolio

NON-THERMAL

Imm. Gas

Drives

Other

Chemical

Miscible

Slug Process

Polymer

CO2

MEOR

Enriched Gas Drive

Surfactant

Flue Gas

FOAM

Vaporizing Gas Drive

Alkaline

Inert Gas

CO2 Miscible

Micellar

MEOR is a rapidly growing EOR technique currently under laboratory research or field investigation

N2 Miscible

ASP

Alcohol

Emulsion

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia

meor mechanisms and strategies
MEOR Mechanisms and Strategies
  • Acids, gas, solvents production
    • Commonly made by carbohydrate fermentation
    • Inject carbohydrates (molasses, etc.)
  • Selective plugging
    • Create biofilms, cell mass and/or mineral precipitates
    • Any nutrient could work: use nitrate as electron acceptor
    • If reservoir has high divalent cation concentration, CO2 production may stimulate carbonate formation
  • Hydrocarbon degradation
    • Inject electron acceptor and/or limiting nutrients (N, S, P, metals)
  • Biosurfactant production
  • Emulsifiers
    • Periodic cycles of nutrient-excess and nutrient limitation

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia

microbially converting co2 to ch4 in depleted reservoirs from maeda 2009
Microbially Converting CO2 to CH4 in Depleted Reservoirs (from Maeda, 2009)

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia

implementing meor from mcinerney 2009
Implementing MEOR (from McInerney,2009)
  • Not all reservoirs are candidates for MEOR
  • Environmental conditions limit microbial growth
  • Recommendations:
    • Temperature: <80oC
    • pH: 5-9
    • Salinity: <10%
    • Depth: <2500 m
    • API gravity: > 15o
    • Residual oil saturation: >25%

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia

background of the reservoir investigated
Background of the Reservoir Investigated
  • Characteristics of the Huatugou Oil Reservoir, Qinghai Oilfield, China
    • Production history: 1958-present
    • EOR: Water-flooding
    • Formation Water Salinity <2x104 ppm
    • Reservoir P/T: 45℃ /22 MPa
    • Fm water pH≤7
    • Low sulfate concentration

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia

microbial screening
Microbial Screening
  • Hydrocarbon Degrading Bacteria (HBD)
    • Microbes population>105 cells/ml(Bottle test)
  • Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB)
    • Not Detected (PCR)

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia

meor screening
MEOR Screening

The Huatugou reservoir is a good candidate for MEOR

  • Relatively high microbe population: >105 (Cell counting)
  • Low formation Water Salinity: <2x104 ppm
  • Low reservoir T: 45℃
  • Suitable formation water chemistry: pH≤7
  • Low corrosion risk: no SRB detected

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia

nutrient stimulation
Nutrient Stimulation
  • Proper nutrient (Carbon Source: Reservoir oil)
  • Target facultative anaerobic indigenous consortia
  • Cell Population is up to 108 cells/ml
  • Minor IFT and Viscosity changes
  • Gas production observed

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia

bio surfactant species selection and identification
Bio-surfactant: species selection and identification
  • Two strains were selected and named as BIOS682-1and BIOS682-2
  • Initial screening by the blood agar lysis method: positive
  • Screening using the oil spreading method
    • Pure culture clear zone diameters : 4.5 cm and 4.8 cm
    • Mixed culture clear zone diameter: 5.0 cm
  • Species identification using 16s RNA
    • BIOS682-1: Brevibacillus agri (99% similarity)
    • BIOS682-2: Brevibacillus levicki (95%, a possible new species)

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia

bio surfactants species culture and assessment
Bio-surfactants: speciesculture and assessment
  • Mixed culture of two selected strains
    • 5ml oil/50ml-medium cultured for 3 weeks at 45℃
    • Under facultative anaerobic condition (headspace filled with N2)
  • Oil-water separation
    • Oil was centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 10 min at room temperature
    • Oil was extracted by using CCl4 (oil in water)
  • The surface tension
    • Equipment: Contact Angle analyzer (DCA322)
  • Emulsification (Culture and reservoir oil 1:1 v/v)
    • Emulsification maintained for 100 hrs after 15 min u/s bathing
    • The ratio between emulsified oil and water measured

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia

bio surfactant producing species culture and assessment
Bio-surfactant producing species:culture and assessment
  • Surface tension reduction: 24%
  • Emulsification improvement: 14%

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia

bio surfactant analysis
Bio-surfactant analysis
  • Bio-surfactant of lipopeptide extraction protocol
    • centrifuged twice at 4°C @10,000 rpm for 20 min
    • the supernatant was mixed with 6mol HCL @ pH=2 (24 hrs 4°C)
    • The floccules were collected using centrifuge (4°C @10,000 rpm for 20 min)
    • The settlings were washed using acidic solution (pH=2), then dissolved in weak alkali solution (pH=8)
    • Extracted with DCM and methanol solution (v/v 3:1)
    • Dried under vacuum at low temperature
    • The primary products were dissolved in alkali solution (pH=8)
    • The extraction was then dried under vacuum

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia

bio surfactant analysis1
Bio-surfactant analysis
  • Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)
    • Initial screening
  • Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS).
    • The purified product was hydrolyzed for 14 hrs at 110 ℃ with 6N HCl in N2 chamber
    • Equipment: Agilent 1100 system

a-Amino acid

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia

bio surfactant analysis2
Bio-surfactant analysis
  • Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)

Metabolite

Standard Sample

lipopeptidebio-surfactant(Pink): Qualitative analysis

Solution used is a mixture of n-butanol/alcohol/water(4:1:1)

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia

bio surfactant analysis3
Bio-surfactant analysis

Metabolite

Standard Sample

lipopeptidebio-surfactant-Amino Acid (Yellow)

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia

bio surfactant analysis4
Bio-surfactant analysis

Amino Acid contents in the metabolites

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia

4 core flooding experiment
4. Core-flooding Experiment

Oil

Collector

Core Holder

Water

Microbes

Core-flooding experiment design:

  • T/P: 45℃/22 MPa
  • Water-cut: 70%
  • Incubation time: 3 days
  • Injected volume: 2.5 PV of Cultured solution

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia

synthetic core plugs for core flooding experiments
Synthetic Core Plugs for Core Flooding Experiments
  • Material: oil zone sandstone recovered from the producing well,
    • DisintegratedCleaned
    • Sieved to 30, 80 and 120 meshes, respectively
  • A two-layer heterogeneous sand packs with different permeabilities was constructed
    • Layer 1: 2:2:1 mix of 30-80, 80-120 and >120 meshes
    • Layer 2: 1:1 mix of 30-80 and 80-120 meshes

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia

core flooding experiment
Core-flooding Experiment

η=(B-A)-C

  • B: final oil recovery %
  • A: oil recovery % from 0.5 pv nutrient solution injection
  • C: oil recovery % (Blank) from 0.5 pv synthetic formation water injection
  • η: incremental oil recovery (%)

Core plug properties

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia

results of core flooding
Results of core-flooding

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia

conclusions
Conclusions
  • The Huatugou reservoir in the Qinghai Oilfield is a good candidate for MEOR
  • The indigenous facultative anaerobic flora from the reservoir was stimulated by adding proper nutrients to promote their activities
  • The two indigenous aerobic species selected can co-metabolize well and produced more bio-surfactant than from a single strain in the reservoir
  • The two species identified by 16s RNA are Brevibacillus agri (BIOS682-1); and a possible new species in genus of Bacillus brevis (BIOS682-2).

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia

conclusions1
Conclusions
  • The metabolites of BIOS682 contain low concentration of amino acids
  • An 11% incremental recovery was achieved using a combined microbial and biosurfactant solution injection.
  • The facultative anaerobic flora play an important role in peeling the oil form rock or breaking down the large oil drops.
  • The use of cultured solution with bio-surfactant and other metabolites is much more effective than the use of the indigenous microbes alone in recovering residual oil.

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia

future work
Future work
  • In-situ experiments (Field Trials)
  • Further analysis of the metabolites

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia

slide30

Dr Xiaofang Wei

Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, PetroChina

weixfanf@163.com

Dr Keyu Liu

Research Team Leader

CSIRO Petroleum

Keyu.Liu@csiro.au

Thank You

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia