Dracula Part 1COMM 1851 Literary Adaptation UPDATED FALL 2011 Bram Stoker
Dracula Topics • History & Legend • Bram Stoker • Vlad The Impaler • Countess Bathory • Dracula: Novel • Characters • Novel-chapters • Victorian Themes/Interpretation
Bram Stoker 1847-1912 • Irish novelist • Studied vampire legends of eastern Europe; Varney the vampire comic • Died without having traveled to Transylvania • Wife survived. • Novel in diary format (1897)
Vlad the Impaler • Prince of Walachia: Province of Transylvania Wallachia in the mid 15th century. • Called Prince “Dracul”; order of the dragon; Fraternal order of knights • Imprisoned tortured by the Turks; brother and father killed. Sought revenge! • Hero who brought back Christianity to Wallachia • Cruel tyrant who impaled thousands as scare tactics and to keep masses in check (Islamics and Christians alike) • Did he drink blood? NO
Royal lineage-Countess of Transylvania Vain; searched for eternal youth by bathing in virgin’s blood. ( Age 40) 600 girls died; 10 years of serial killing Imprisonment in her own castle; walled into a closet like space. Lived four years; No word of regret Did she drink blood? Probably not. Stoker read about her Countess Bathory 1560-1614?
Dracula Characters(1) • Jonathan Harker- lawyer who travels to Transylvania to sell Count Dracula a house in Whitby. (Carfax Abbey) Wives feed on him, but he escapes.. • Count Dracula- aristocrat undead/vampire age? • Renfield-inmate in the asylum; Dracula’s slave eats bugs and birds. Age 50
Dracula Characters(2) • Mina Harker- Young teacher, shy Jonathan fiancé fed on by Dracula but helps capture him. • Lucy Westerna- 19, & vivacious sleepwalker who dies and becomes the “Bloofer lady” • Arthur Holmwood- Lucy’s fiancé inherits title upon father death. Becomes Lord Godalming
Dracula Characters(3) • Quincy Morris-One of Lucy's suitors, a Texan sharpshooter with a big knife. • Mrs. Westerna- Lucy’s mother who removes the garlic; leads to Lucy's death. Victim of Dracula. (scared to death..) • Swales-orderly who foretells the coming of Dracula as a plaque of evil.
Dracula Characters(4) • Dr. Jack Seward- runs the insane asylum one of Lucy’s suitors. Morphine addict. • Dr Abraham Van Helsing- Contacted by Seward Dr from Amsterdam to help with Lucy’s illness. Identifies and defines vampirism.
*Chapters 1- 4 • Jonathan Harker travels to castle Dracula to finalize transfer of the estate of Count Dracula to England • Warned by local peasants: gets rosary cross • Mysterious coach • Meets with Count • Discovers Count’s secrets • Fed on by wives; prisoner • Dracula leaves for England
*Chapter 1-4 • Most films adaptations use this segment of the Novel. • Pleasant journey, coachman (Dracula) • Creepy castle • Count & razor sequence • Count is seen doing extraordinary feats • Seduction of the protagonist by female vamp
Chapter 5-6 • Mina & Lucy are described • Lucy suitors are introduced; see accepts proposal of marriage from Arthur. • Renfield introduced/Seward interested. • Ghost stories of Whitby • Swales tells of the coming evil • Lucy sleepwalking; Dracula approaches Eng.
Chapter 7-8 • Renfield states that “the Master is at Hand;” More agitated. • Boxes of earth delivered to Carfax • Renfield escapes to Carfax abbey; recaptured by Seward. • Swales dies. (murdered by Dracula?)
Chapter 7-8 • Dracula ship’s(Demeter) crashes on the rocks at Whitby all dead; wolf escapes. • Dracula preys on Lucy; Lucy pale • Lucy’s dreams of the man with red eyes.
Chapter 9-10 • Jonathan is found in Budapest; Mina journeys to him; married. • Lucy continues to be Dracula’s prey • Seward contacts Van Helsing; he arrives. • Many Transfusions • Van Helsing tells the others about the “un-dead.”
Chapter 11-13 • Mrs Westerna removes garlic; Dies of fright • Quincy transfusion; describes the bat. • Lucy transforms; longer teeth; removes garlic from around her neck • Seward sees the giant bat • Lucy dies • Mina & Jonathan arrive back in London • “Bloofer Lady” appears
Chapter 14-16 • Seward and Van Helsing find Lucy’s grave empty • Confront the “Bloofer lady” in tomb • Arthur & suitors disgusted by Lucy’s wantonness • Van Helsing & Arthur destroy Lucy, the vow to destroy “the evil”
Chapter 17-19 • Mina & Jonathan arrive at Seward’s asylum • Mina is fascinated with Renfield • Van Helsing tells Mina about vampirism: Jonathan has tried to protect her from it. • Six people assemble to vanquish count • Mina becomes next victim
Chapter 20-23 • Renfield tries to defend Mina: Dracula hurts him (back broken) • Dracula forces Mina to drink blood from chest cut • Arthur & Quincy sterilize some of Dracula’s boxes. • Good guys try to ambush Dracula at his Piccadilly house. (taunts them…) • Dracula sets to leave England by ship
Chapter 24 & 25 • Czarina Catherine sails from Varna with Dracula • The six follow ship by train. But spilt up. • Mina agrees to help (hypnotic link) • Euthanasia • Dracula arrives at Galatz race ensues • Van Helsing & Mina spend the night in the forest near Borgo pass
Ending: Chapter 26 & 27 • Mina Van Helsing Jonathan & Arthur stop the gypsies near Castle Dracula; Seward & Quincy join the battle with their guns.. • Jonathan jumps onto the the cart pushes box to the ground. Quincy slices at the gypsies with knife, but is mortally wounded.
Ending: Chapter 26 & 27 • At the last moment of sunlight; Jonathan stabs Dracula in the heart with a knife and he turns to dust. • Quincy dies • Mina is released from the curse.
Rules of the Vampire • Immortal feeds on blood; grows younger • Strong as 20 men • Transform into rat, wolf, & fog • Controls elements: storms.. • No shadow or reflection in a mirror • Can not enter without being invited. • Must lie in native soil; during the daylight hours? • Repelled by garlic, holy water, & crucifix (and other symbols of Christianity)
Dracula vs. Victorian Ideology • Threat to Christianity • Examination Women’s sexuality & Fear of Women’s sexuality • Science & superstition
Dracula vs. Victorian Ideology 1. Threat to Christianity Dracula acts as a sort of Anti-Christ/Cult leader: • Evil: Darkness Vs Light • Devoted disciples • Everlasting Spiritual life Vs. Eternal Physical Life • Communion VS. Bloodletting • Animal like/survival behavior not faith based • Extremely blasphemous concept!
Dracula vs. Victorian ideology 2. Examination Women’s Sexuality Victorian ideal: Passive women are to be pursued by sexually aggressive men • Lucy & Mina succumb to the vampire’s hypnotic powers. (give in to Dominate Male) • Mina perceived as idea female image • Lucy portrayed as fallen women • Victims crave Dominate Male (Dracula) • Dracula enters the bedchamber of women. Opportunities for “sex” Text perceived as soft pornography
Dracula vs. Victorian ideology 2. Fear of Women’s Sexuality Dracula’s produces sexually aggressive & physically powerful women • Jonathan & the Brides. • Arthur disgusted & turned on by Lucy; 4 men to kill her. • Mina takes Dracula’s blood: reciprocated act of sex • Symbiotic relationship hypnotic bond with him • Female victims grow long teeth: power symbols (phallic) • Hypnotize victims • Prey on passive victims (males & innocents)
Dracula vs. Victorian ideology The first solution: Purging female aggression through non supernatural male dominance • Only the blood of healthy christian males can rescue the tainted female. • Symbolizes a return to purity • Transfusion symbolizes penetration • Mina powers are reduced: conforms to male society-return to passivity
Dracula vs. Victorian Ideology The Second Solution: Destruction of Dracula • Destroys the source of Evil/challenge to Christianity. • Destroys the male who creates aggressive women. • Society can only prevail if the status quo is returned
Dracula vs. Victorian Ideology 3. Science vs Superstition (Faith) Is science the only savior to society? • Dracula is portrayed as the antithesis of western civilization: supernatural & “old ways” • Xenophobia & Animal instincts • Van Helsing triumphs through the study of mythology and medicine
Dracula vs. Victorian Ideology • Van Helsing uses superstition(research of Christian symbols, legends of vampire etc… as a means to defeat Dracula. • Uses blood transfusion (science) to control the infection of vampirism (BUT…… the task is brutal!) Does that look like progress to you ?
Note: Changing role of Hypnotism • Primitive method of control for Dracula. • Hypnotism became part of the scientific method used in Freudian psychoanalysis.