Chapter 4 Police in Society: History and Organization. Learning Objectives. Describe how law enforcement developed in feudal England. Know what the first police agencies were like. Discuss the development of law enforcement in the United States.
Learning Objectives • Describe how law enforcement developed in feudal England. • Know what the first police agencies were like. • Discuss the development of law enforcement in the United States. • Analyze the problems of early police agencies. • Discuss how reformers attempted to create professional police agencies. • Describe the major changes in law enforcement between 1970 and today. • Be familiar with the major federal law enforcement agencies. • Know the differences between state, county, and local law enforcement. • Describe how technology is changing police work. • Discuss the future of police technology and be familiar with the direction it is taking.
The History of Police • Pledge system - families banded together for protection • Watch system - employed watchmen to protect against robberies, fires, and disturbances
Private Police and Thief Takers • Private police (thief takers) profited due to lack of formal police • In 1829 Sir Robert Peel, London Metropolitan Police Act (MPA) created the first organized police force of over 1,000 men
Law Enforcement in Colonial America • County Sheriff - collecting taxes, supervising elections, and performing other matters of business • Involved reacting to citizens’ complaints and investigating crimes • Pay on a fee system linked to effectiveness
Early Police Agencies • Boston created first U.S. police dept. in 1838 • Many early agencies were corrupt • Involved patrol on foot • Major responsibility was maintaining order
The Emergence of Professionalism • 1893 International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) - called for a civil service police force • August Vollmer most famous police reformer - instituted university training for young officers and argued for merit recruitment
The 1960s and Beyond • Turmoil and crisis in the 1960s • Supreme Court decisions impacted police • Rapidly growing crime rate in the 1960s • 1970s there were structural changes in police departments, increased federal support, LEAA, and the recruitment of women and minorities
The 1960s and Beyond • 1980s - emergence of community policing, unions fought for increase in salaries, state and local budgets were cut • 1990s - Rodney King case
Federal Law Enforcement Agencies • Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) • Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) • Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) • U.S. Marshals Service • Customs and Border Protection (CBP) • Secret Service
State Law Enforcement Agencies • Created to deal with crime in nonurban areas • Jurisdiction ranges from primary responsibility to enforce traffic laws to general police powers to specialized tasks • Provide a wide range of support to other agencies
County Law Enforcement Agencies • Sheriff’s role evolved from early English shire reeve • Provide routine patrol, respond to citizen calls and investigate crimes • Duties vary according to size and degree of development in the county
Metropolitan Law Enforcement Agencies • Range in size from agencies with 40,000 officers to departments with only 1 part-time officer • Vast majority of police work is done at local level • Most provide a wide variety of services and functions
Private Policing • Private security has become a multimillion-dollar industry • 10,000 firms and 1.5 million employees
Technology and Law Enforcement • Crime Mapping • License Plate Recognition Technology • Digitizing Criminal Identification • Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems • Digital Dental Records • DNA Testing
Future Technology • Genetic algorithms • Discretionless policing • Augmented reality • Automated Biometric Identification System