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SCIENTROMETRIC. By Preeti Patil. Introduction.

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scientrometric
SCIENTROMETRIC

By

PreetiPatil

introduction
Introduction

The twentieth century may be described as the century of the development of metric science. Among the different metrics Scientrometric is the most interesting subject area in the field of library and information science, which can be applied to any discipline irrespective of their period of evolution. It involves quantitative studies of scientific activities. It is also one such useful metrics/technique which helps to solve the problems, challenges posed by so called information explosion. Over the years, several new terms have appeared in library and information science. They were known as –

  • Librametrics (1940’s)
  • Bibliometrics (1960’s)
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  • Scientrometrics (1970’s)
  • Informetrics (1980).
  • Cybermetrics and webometrics (1990’s)

Now let us see in brief , what all these metrics define.

  • Librametrics as , “ Quantitative analysis of various facets of library activities and library documents by the application of mathematical and statistical calculus to seek solution to library problems.”
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  • Bibliometrics as “ the study of the use of documents and patterns of publication in which mathematical and statistical methods have been applied.”
  • Informetrics was used as a generic term to mean the use and development of a variety of measures to study and analyze several properties of information in general and documents in particular.”It covers bibliometrics and scientrometrics.
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  • Webometrics/Cybermetrics as the study of the quantitative aspects of the construction and use of information resources , structure and technologies on the www drawing on bibliometrics and informetric approaches.”
  • “Webometrics displays several similarities to informetric and Scientometrics studies and the application of common bibliometrics methods.”
what is scientrometrics
What is Scientrometrics?
  • It is the science of measuring the “quality “of science.
  • It is often done using bibliometrics which is a measurement of the impact of scientific publication.
  • It includes all quantitative aspects of the science of science, communication in science, and science policy.
  • The term Scientometrics originated as a Russian term for the application of quantitative methods to the history of science.
  • This term was introduction and came into prominence with founding of the journal named ‘Scientrometrics’
  • It deals with analysis, evaluation and graphic representation of science and technology information. It tells “Who is doing what and where?”
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  • by T . Braunin 1977, originally published in Hungary and currently from Amsterdam.
  • Scientrometrics used to mean communication process in science including social- culture aspects and appears to be almost synonymous to science of science.
  • Scientrometrics can be treated as an analogue concept to bibliometrics.
  • The term Scientrometrics is a field which applies quantitative methods to the study of science as an information process.
  • Thus scientrometrics is a part of the sociology of science and has application to science policy making.
definitions
Definitions
  • Nalmov and Mulchenko (1969) of USSR defined as the quantitative methods which deals with analysis of science viewed as an information process.
  • According to Pouris (1989), ‘Scientrometrics is a application of quantitative techniques(system analysis, mathematical and statistical techniques etc.) to scientific communication(science output, science policy, science administration etc.) with the objectives of;
  • Developing science indicators;
  • Measuring the impact of science on society; and
  • Comparing the output as well as the impact of science at national and international levels.
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  • Tgue- Sutcliffe pointed “Scientometrics “as the study of quantitative aspects of science as a discipline or economic activity.
  • Dobrov and Karennnol defined it as “ the measurement of informatics processes”.
  • While Mikhilov defined it “ as that scientific discipline that studies the structure and properties of scientific information and the laws of processes of scientific discipline devoted to all quantitative aspects of science and scientific research”12.
  • Thus Scientometrics encapsulates research from various walks of life – historians, philosophers, economists,
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  • scientists etc. – from different branches of physics and the natural sciences I,e science managers and policy makers, and administrators of government and non-governmental organizations, among many others.
  • Thus Scientometrics involves studies in :
  • Sociology of science
  • History of science
  • Growth of science and scientific institutions
  • Behaviour of science and scientists.
  • Science policy and decision- making
scientometrics indicators
Scientometrics Indicators

Impact Factor:

  • Impact factor was first described by Dr. Eugene Garfield in 1955. It is a measure of importance of scientific journals which is widely used to rank and evaluate journals.
  • This is used as Scientometrics indicators for evaluating journals impact factor.
  • It is a quasi-qualitative indicator which provides a measurement of the prestige and international visibility of journals.
  • “It is the number of current citations to articles published in a specific journals in a two years period divided by the total number of articles published in the same journal in the corresponding two years period.”
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H-Index:

  • H-Index has introduced by, Hirsch for quantify an individual’s scientific research output.
  • It attempts to measure; both the scientific productivity and the apparent scientific impact of a scientist.
  • This index is based on the set of the scientist’s most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other people’s publications.
  • Vinkler (2007) reveals that the Scientometrics cannot offer a simple consistent method for measuring the scientific eminence of individuals. According to him the h-index was found applicable for evaluating publication of senior scientists with similar publishing features.
scientometrics tools
Scientometrics tools

The quantitative as well as qualitative analysis of any Scientometrics study, such as citation mapping, visualization, bibliographic coupling, co- authorship network, co-words mapping etc. are carried out by using Scientometrics tools. This tools are very much useful for Scientrometricians for mapping their parameters in any accept of their study.

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Conclusion

Scientometrics analysis use data on numbers and author of scientific publication and on articles and the citations therein to measure the output of countries, identify national and international networks, and to map the developments of new fields of science and technology. As well as to known the inner logic of science development.