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Contribution from Natural Sources of Aerosol Particles to PM in Canada Sunling Gong Scientific Team: Tianliang Zhao, David Lavoue, Richard Leaitch,. NARCM. NCEP. Aerosol Mass Balance. ¶c. ¶c. ¶c. ¶c. ¶c. ij. ij. ij. ij. ij. =. +. +. +. ¶. t. ¶. t. ¶. t. ¶. t. ¶. t.

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slide1

Contribution from Natural Sources of Aerosol Particles to PM in CanadaSunling GongScientific Team: Tianliang Zhao,David Lavoue, Richard Leaitch,

narcm
NARCM

NCEP

aerosol mass balance
Aerosol Mass Balance

¶c

¶c

¶c

¶c

¶c

ij

ij

ij

ij

ij

=

+

+

+

t

t

t

t

t

TRANSPORT

SURFACE

CLEAR

AIR

DRY

¶c

¶c

ij

ij

+

+

t

t

IN

-

CLOUD

BELOW

-

CLOUDS

Gong et al. 2003, JGR

CAM: A Size Segregated Simulation of Atmospheric Aerosol Processes for Climate and Air Quality Models

1. Module Development

slide4

Source Functions

  • Sea-salt
  • Soil dust
  • DMS - Sulphate
  • BC/OC
    • Bio-mass burning
slide5

Source Functions – Soil Dust

Horizontal and Vertical Fluxes

r < 20 mm

Marticorena and Bergametti [1995]

parameters needed
Parameters Needed

Source Functions – Soil Dust

  • Soil Features
    • Roughness
    • Texture (size distribution)
    • Composition
    • Land use
  • Meteorology
    • Wind speed
    • Soil moisture
slide7

Source Functions – Sea-salt

By two mechanisms:

[Monahan et al. 1986]

slide8

Source Functions – Bio-Mass

B.C.

(Tg year-1)

P.O.M.

(Tg year-1)

Global Budgets for the 1980s

Biomass Burning

5.96

50.4

Savannas1

Tropical forests1

Boreal & temperate vegetation fires2

Agricultural fires1

Domestic fuels1

2.17

1.93

0.33

0.53

1.00

15.5

16.6

5.9

3.1

9.3

Fossil Fuels3

5.10

9.4

Natural Sources1

_

7.8

TOTAL

11.06

67.6

1Liousse et al. (1996), 2Lavoué et al. (2000), 3Cooke et al. (1999)

slide9

Source Functions – BC/OC

Boreal Forest Fire Emissions, 1998

slide10

200,000

180,000

160,000

140,000

120,000

BC (t)

100,000

80,000

60,000

40,000

20,000

0

1970

1971

1972

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

Source Functions – BC/OC

30%

Black Carbon, Canada

slide11

2,250,000

2,000,000

1,750,000

1,500,000

1,250,000

POC (t)

1,000,000

750,000

500,000

250,000

0

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Source Functions – BC/OC

90%

Particulate Organic Carbon, Canada

slide13

Results

1998 – BC/OC from biomass only

2001 – spring with all sources

slide18

Results –OC

Surface concentration (ng.m-3)

Organic Matter Summertime Concentrations

Column loading (ug.m-2)

Canadian Fires, 1998

slide25

Results – Sea-salt

%

Sea-salt to PM in East

Canada – 2001 Spring

mg m-3

slide26

Results – Sea-salt

%

Sea-salt to PM in West Canada – 2001 Spring

mg m-3

slide27

Other Natural Aerosols

DMS (Oceanic & Land)

DMS+OH  SO2 H2SO4

Biogenic Emission

Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA)

Volcanoes

SO2 and sulphate

slide29

200,000

180,000

160,000

140,000

120,000

BC (t)

100,000

80,000

60,000

40,000

20,000

0

1970

1971

1972

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

Interannual Variations – Bio-Mass

30%

Black Carbon, Canada

slide30

2,250,000

2,000,000

1,750,000

1,500,000

1,250,000

POC (t)

1,000,000

750,000

500,000

250,000

0

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Interannual Variations – Bio-Mass

90%

Particulate Organic Carbon, Canada

surface ozone enhancements caused by anthropogenic emissions from different continents
SURFACE OZONE ENHANCEMENTS CAUSED BYANTHROPOGENIC EMISSIONS FROM DIFFERENT CONTINENTS

GEOS-CHEM

model, July 1997

North America

Europe

Asia

Li et al. [2001]

inter continental transport
Inter-continental Transport
  • How much background level of ozone can be attributed to inter-continental transport in Canada?
  • How much background level of PM in Canada can be attributed to inter-continental transport?
  • What is the impact of economic developments in other continents to Canadian AQ?
intercontinental transport and climatic effects of air pollutants icap
Intercontinental transport and Climatic effects of Air Pollutants (ICAP)
  • To conduct an assessment of long-range transport and impacts on the regional climate.
  • (1) the role of anthropogenic emissions originating from outside North America in U.S. air quality and the global distribution of air pollutants;
  • (2) the role of anthropogenic emissions from the U.S. and other developed countries in determining air quality in other regions;
  • (3) the contributions of important source categories (e.g., biomass burning, utility sector, transportation sector) and their pollutant emissions (e.g., ozone and PM precursors, black carbon, methane) to regional air quality and climate.
slide34

Future Work

  • Multiyear simulation – more scenarios
    • High and low contributions
  • Large domain – including Sahara desert
  • Comparison with observations
  • Separate natural and anthropogenic simulations
  • Multi-frame work and pollutants
    • GEM/AQ, AURAMS, ….
    • CO, O3, BC/OC, ….
slide35

Summary - 1

  • A frame work for studying the contributions of natural aerosols to the background PM in Canada has been established.
  • Seal-salt and bio-mass burning contribute substantially to the background PM depending on time and locations.
slide36

Summary - 2

  • Natural contributions have a large interannual variations.
  • More simulations should been done to characterize the variations of these contributions as well as other natural components.