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  1. Government Information in the 21rst Century Teaching and Training the Adult Learner

  2. Characteristics of learners • Aptitude • Motivation • Cognitive development • Psycho-social development • Learning styles • Gender, ethnicity, social class dgrealy Gi21

  3. Characteristics of adult learners • Andragogy v. Pedagogy • Life span development • New passages • Generations dgrealy Gi21

  4. Malcolm Knowles • Five crucial assumptions about the characteristics of adult learners that differ from the assumptions about child learners • 1. Self-concept • Move from dependency toward being self directed. • 2. Experience • Accumulation of a growing reservoir of experience that becomes an increasing resource for learning. • 3. Readiness to learn • Readiness to learn; increasing orientation toward the developmental tasks of social roles. • 4. Orientation to learning changes • Time perspective: shift from “postponed application of knowledge” to “immediacy of application” • Orientation toward learning shifts from “ subject-centeredness” to “problem centeredness.” • 5. Motivation to learn • As a person matures the motivation to learn is internal (Knowles 1984:12). dgrealy Gi21

  5. Lifespan development • Cognitive • Mental processes of knowing, which include imagining, perceiving, reasoning, and problem solving • Biological • Bodily changes, maturation, and growth • Psychosocial • Emotions, personality and social interactions and expectations dgrealy Gi21

  6. Adaptation throughout life depends on: • How well each of us negotiates the internal and external factors that enhance or constrain our abilities to reach our full potentials • How we build on strengths to transcend these limitations over time • “Life consists not in holding good cards but in playing those you hold well.” –Josh Billings dgrealy Gi21

  7. Passages and new passages • Longer productive life span • Expectation of second, even third adult careers • Generations • Differences in behaviors, expectations, and approach to information seeking • Baby boomers • Gen-X, Gen-Y, Millennials dgrealy Gi21

  8. Learning styles • TRiM (3 modes): linguistic, nonlinguistic, affective • VAK (sensory): Visual, audial, kinesthetic http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/styles.html dgrealy Gi21

  9. Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) • Based on work of Carl Jung: identification of distinct personality patterns • MBTI: widely used instrument can be of help in understanding individual differences. • 1. Extroversion (E) versus Introversion (I)  • 2. Sensing (S) versus iNtuition (N) • 3. Thinking (T) versus Feeling (F) • 4. Judging (J) versus Perceptive (P) dgrealy Gi21

  10. http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/styles.html dgrealy Gi21

  11. Gardner’s Multiple intelligences Verbal Linguistic Logical-mathematical MusicalSpatial Bodily Kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalist Goleman’s Emotional intelligence Motivation Resilience Intelligences dgrealy Gi21

  12. Lenses • Add to understanding; assist in strategy development • Life cycle development • Learning style • Multiple intelligences • Emotional intelligence • Also • Moral, aesthetic development • Ethnicity and race (cultural experience) • Gender (voice; ways of understanding) dgrealy Gi21

  13. Group learning • Learning characteristics of individual • Learning characteristics of group • Dynamic • Interactive • Mediated • Peer-to-peer • Outcome-oriented • Competency-driven dgrealy Gi21

  14. Professional education: 3-tier model Cognitive Core, theory, philosophy, best practices Experiential Practical, Internships, Service Learning Holistic Reflection, personal meaning-making and mastery Sullivan, W. M. (2007, Keynote Address Tuesday January 16, 2007, 8:30am-10:00am). The Civic Life of Information: Teaching Professionalism for the Knowledge Age. Paper presented at the Association for Library and Information Science Education Annual Conference: Promoting Excellence in Library and Information Science Education, Seattle, WA. dgrealy Gi21

  15. 7 effective training strategies • Behavioral • Cognitive • Inquiry • Mental models • Group dynamics • Virtual reality • Holistic James R. Davis & Adelaide B. Davis, Effective Training Strategies: A Comprehensive Guide to Maximizing Learning in Organizations. San Francisco, CA.: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 1998 Davis, J. R., and Cerqueira, D. A. (1999). Assessing the results of training: The case of water sanitation in Brazil: COPASA MG. In T. K. Hodges (Ed.), Measuring learning and performance (pp. 107-114). Alexandria VA: American Society for Training and Development. dgrealy Gi21

  16. Strategy implementation • Best use (re: key learning task) • Theory • Participant role • Facilitator role • Assessment • See handout for details dgrealy Gi21

  17. Seven Strategies dgrealy Gi21

  18. Learning summary • Interactive • Competency-based • Individual and in groups • Applied • Reflective dgrealy Gi21

  19. References • http://www.infed.org/lifelonglearning/b-andra.htm • http://www.learner.org/discoveringpsychology/development/ • http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/styles.html dgrealy Gi21

  20. Questions? dgrealy Gi21