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Distributed File Systems. CSE 380 Lecture Note 14 Insup Lee. Remote Files. File service vs. file server File service interface: the specification of what the file system offers to its clients. File server: a process that runs on some machine and helps implement the file service.

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Distributed file systems l.jpg

Distributed File Systems

CSE 380

Lecture Note 14

Insup Lee

CSE 380

Remote files l.jpg
Remote Files

  • File service vs. file server

    • File service interface: the specification of what the file system offers to its clients.

    • File server: a process that runs on some machine and helps implement the file service.

  • File Service Model (Fig 13-1)

    • upload/download model

    • remote access model

    • Comparison between two model

  • The directory service

    • creating and deleting directories

    • naming and renaming files

    • moving files

CSE 380

Goals l.jpg

  • Network transparency: uses do not have to aware the location of files to access them

    • location transparency: the name of a file does not reveal any kind of the file's physical storage location.

      • /server1/dir1/dir2/X

      • server1 can be moved anywhere (e.g., from CIS to SEAS).

    • location independence: the name of a file does not need to be changed when the file's physical storage location changes.

      • The above file X cannot moved to server2 if server1 is full and server2 is no so full.

  • High availability: system failures or scheduled activities such as backups, addition of nodes

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Architecture l.jpg

  • Computation model

    • file severs -- machines dedicated to storing files and performing storage and retrieval operations (for high performance)

    • clients -- machines used for computational activities may have a local disk for caching remote files

  • Two most important services

    • name server -- maps user specified names to stored objects, files and directories

    • cache manager -- to reduce network delay, disk delay problem: inconsistency

  • Typical data access actions

    • open, close, read, write, etc.

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Design issues l.jpg
Design Issues

  • Naming and name resolution

  • Semantics of file sharing (Fig 13-4, Fig 13-5)

  • Stateless versus stateful servers (Fig 13-8)

  • Caching -- where to store files (Fig 13-9)

  • Cache consistency (Fig 13-11)

  • Replication (Fig 13-12)

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Naming and name resolution l.jpg
Naming and Name Resolution

  • a name space -- collection of names

  • name resolution -- mapping a name to an object

    • same or different view of a directory hierarchy (Fig. 13-3)

  • 3 traditional ways to name files in a distributed environment

    • concatenate the host name to the names of files stored on that host:system-wide uniqueness guaranteed, simple to located a file; however, not network transparent, not location independent, e.g., /machine/usr/foo

    • mount remote directories onto local directories:once mounted, files can be referenced in a location-transparent manner

    • provide a single global directory:requires a unique file name for every file, location independent,cannot encompass heterogeneous environments and wide geographical areas

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Semantics of file sharing l.jpg
Semantics of File Sharing

  • Consistency Semantics Problem (Fig 13-4): read after write

  • Assume open; reads/writes; close

    • UNIX semantics: value read is the value stored by last writeWrites to an open file are visible immediately to others that have this file opened at the same time. Easy to implement if one server and no cache.

    • Session semantics:Writes to an open file by a user is not visible immediately by other users that have files opened already.Once a file is closed, the changes made by it are visible by sessions started later.

    • Immutable-Shared-Files semantics:A sharable file cannot be modified.File names cannot be reused and its contents may not be altered.Simple to implement.

    • Transactions: All changes have all-or-nothing property. W1,R1,R2,W2 not allowed where P1 = W1;W2 and P2 = R1;R2

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Stateful versus stateless service l.jpg
Stateful versus Stateless Service

  • Two approaches to server-side information

    • stateful file server

      • a client performs open on a file

      • the server keeps file information (e.g., file descriptor entry, offset)

      • Adv: increased performance

      • On server crash, it looses all its volatile state information

      • On client crash, the server needs to know to claim state space

    • stateless file server -- each request is self-contained

      • each request identifies the file, the position, read/write.

      • server failure is identical to slow server (client retries...)

      • each request must be idempotent.

      • NFS employs this.

CSE 380

Caching l.jpg

  • Four places to store files (Fig. 13-9)

    • server’s disk: slow performance

    • server caching: in main memory

      • cache management issue, how much to cache, replacement strategy

      • still slow due to network delay

      • Used in high-performance web-search engine servers

    • client caching in main memory

      • can be used by diskless workstation

      • faster to access from main memory than disk

      • compete with the virtual memory system for physical memory space

      • Three options (Fig. 13-10)

    • client-cache on a local disk

      • large files can be cached

      • the virtual memory management is simpler

      • a workstation can function even when it is disconnected from the network

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A comparison of caching and remote service l.jpg
A Comparison of Caching and Remote Service

  • reduces remote accesses (esp, when locality is capitalized) Þ reduces network traffic and server load

  • total network overhead is lower for big chunks of data (caching) than a series of responses to specific requests.

  • disk access can be optimized better for large requests than random disk blocks

  • cache-consistency problem is the major drawback. If there are frequent writes, overhead due to the consistency problem is significant.

  • OS is simpler for remote service.

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Cache consistency l.jpg
Cache Consistency

  • Reflecting changes to local cache to master copy

  • Reflecting changes to master copy to local caches


Copy 1

Master copy


Copy 2

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Update algorithms for client caching l.jpg
Update algorithms for client caching

  • write-through: all writes are carried out immediately

    • Reliable: little information is lost in the event of a client crash

    • Slow: cache not that useful

  • delayed-write: delays writing at the server

    • possible to perform many writes to a block in the cache before it is written

    • if data is written and then deleted immediately, data need not be written at all (20-30 % of new data is deleted with 30 secs)

  • write-on-close: delay writing until the file is closed at the client

    • if file is open for short duration, works fine

    • if file is open for long, susceptible to losing data in the event of client crash

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Cache coherence l.jpg
Cache Coherence

  • How to maintain consistency between locally cached data with the master data when the data has been modified by another client?

    • Client-initiated approach -- check validity onevery access: too much overheadfirst access to a file (e.g., file open)every fixed time interval

    • Server-initiated approach -- server records, for each client, the (parts of) files it caches.After the server detects a potential inconsistency, it reacts.

    • Not allow caching when concurrent-write sharing occurs. Allow many readers. If a client opens for writing, inform all the clients to purge their cached data.

CSE 380

Cache consistency cont l.jpg
Cache consistency, cont.

  • Potential inconsistency:

    • In session semantics, a client closes a modified file.

    • In UNIX semantics, the server must be notified whenever a file is opened and the intended mode (read or write mode) must be indicated for every open.

    • Disable cache when a file is opened in conflicting modes.

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Replication l.jpg

  • Reasons:

    • Increase reliability

    • improve availability

    • balance the servers’ workload

  • how to make replication transparent (Fig. 13-12)

  • how to keep the replicas consistent

    • Problems -- mainly with updates

      • a replica is not updated due to its server failure

      • network partitioned

  • Replication Management:

    • weighted vote for read and write

    • current synchronization site for each file group to control access

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Current research issues l.jpg
Current research issues

  • Scalability

  • Mobile Users

    • disconnected operation

    • low bandwidth communication

  • Security

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