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Creating a Sustainable Reading Culture. Sharon Walpole University of Delaware Michael C. McKenna University of Virginia. Goals for these two days. Engage you in reflection about your current level of GARF implementation Share what we know about upcoming budget cuts

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Creating a sustainable reading culture l.jpg

Creating a Sustainable Reading Culture

Sharon Walpole

University of Delaware

Michael C. McKenna

University of Virginia


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Goals for these two days

  • Engage you in reflection about your current level of GARF implementation

  • Share what we know about upcoming budget cuts

  • Guide you to reflect on your data

  • Demonstrate differentiated lessons so that you can better observe them


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Georgia Reading First: Reality Check √

  • We have one more year of guaranteed full funding

  • We have one additional year of extension funding -- but only at 40%

  • The state must make decisions about how to use that funding

  • This may be your final chance to use RF resources to institutionalize critical aspects of RF


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What are the critical aspects of GARF?

Intensive intervention

Differentiated small-group instruction

High-quality whole-group instruction


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What do researchers identify as barriers to such a plan?

  • Problems in translating policy into practice

  • Inadequate professional development

  • Failure to achieve a supportive culture


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Federal RF

Policy

What actually

happens in schools and classrooms


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Federal RF

Policy

What actually

happens in schools and classrooms


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Federal RF

Policy

Policy must be interpreted by those who implement it.

Policy is rarely specific enough to leave no room for flexibility and adaptation at the local levels (Tabak, 2007).

What actually

happens in schools and classrooms


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Federal RF

Policy

In Reading First, there is enough guidance in policy to enable us to implement our projects to meet the intent of the legislation. At the same time, the policy is broad enough to enable us to tailor our projects to local contexts.

What actually

happens in schools and classrooms


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Federal RF

Policy

If a policy is too vague, it invites so much variation that a program has no distinct identity. That is not the case in Reading First. We believe that the policy permits just the right amount of leeway to ensure both faithful implementation and reasonable adaptations.

What actually

happens in schools and classrooms


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Federal RF

Policy

The policy for Reading First is specific enough, however, that attempts to subvert it are often in clear violation of the legislative intent.

What actually

happens in schools and classrooms


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Kersten and Pardo (2007) approvingly describe a teacher named “Celina,” who taught from the core program only on Mondays and did as she pleased the rest of the week.


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“During this study, Celina demonstrated that she was adept at finessing her teaching. She determined she would give a nod to the mandated basal series and the required 120 minutes of instruction; yet she also maintained a focus on integrated language arts and writing workshop. She drew from her four years of experience in a fairly stable context to teach in a way that she was not only comfortable with but also that she felt would best serve her students.” (p. 151)


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We believe that in Georgia teachers like “Celina” are rare. The fact is, Reading First expects teachers to make reasonable adaptations appropriate for their contexts.

This policy is in accord with research. Klingner et al. (1999) found that teachers value practices that permit some modification and that are not overly rigid.


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The Too-Tight, Too-Loose Dilemma rare. The fact is, Reading First

Limited Press

for Change

Tight Control

Temporary

Improvement

Loose Control

– Adapted from Fullan (2006)


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The Too-Tight, Too-Loose Dilemma rare. The fact is, Reading First

Limited Press

for Change

Tight Control

Temporary

Improvement

Loose Control

– Adapted from Fullan (2006)


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“In general terms, the solution to motivating people is to establish the right blend of tightness and looseness.” (Fullan, 2006, p. 37)

Michael Fullan


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Federal RF establish the right blend of tightness and looseness.” (Fullan, 2006, p. 37)

Policy

Translating the policy of Reading First into effective classroom practice is the goal of professional development.

What actually

happens in schools and classrooms


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Facilitators establish the right blend of tightness and looseness.” (Fullan, 2006, p. 37)

PD Program

Teachers

Context

Borko (2004) suggests that in order for a PD program to influence teacher knowledge, certain individuals must facilitate the program, mindful of school and classroom contexts.

Hilda Borko


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Facilitators establish the right blend of tightness and looseness.” (Fullan, 2006, p. 37)

PD Program

Teachers

Context

In Reading First, there are many facilitators: coaches, principals, Academy trainers, program reps, and even PD architects.


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Facilitators establish the right blend of tightness and looseness.” (Fullan, 2006, p. 37)

PD Program

Teachers

Context

Over time, teachers themselves become facilitators as they learn together and build a professional community focused on reading.


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Facilitators establish the right blend of tightness and looseness.” (Fullan, 2006, p. 37)

PD Program

Teachers

Context

The contexts in which they learn are their own classrooms, which become laboratories where they can try out new approaches and judge the results for themselves.


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What does a good Reading First establish the right blend of tightness and looseness.” (Fullan, 2006, p. 37)

school look like?

Reading First has many dimensions, and they are all important. Under the direction of Carolyn Vincent, RMC has recently provided a checklist to examine these dimensions. As we proceed, ask yourself how your own project stacks up.


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Leadership establish the right blend of tightness and looseness.” (Fullan, 2006, p. 37)

Common purpose

Curriculum

Instruction

Assessment

Use of time

Professional Development

Coaching/Support

Use of recurring resources

District support

RMC Implementation Checklist


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Leadership establish the right blend of tightness and looseness.” (Fullan, 2006, p. 37)

Common purpose

Curriculum

Instruction

Assessment

Use of time

Professional Development

Coaching/Support

Use of recurring resources

District support

RMC Implementation Checklist


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Leadership establish the right blend of tightness and looseness.” (Fullan, 2006, p. 37)

Job descriptions, supervision, evaluation of leaders’ support for reading improvement.


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Leadership establish the right blend of tightness and looseness.” (Fullan, 2006, p. 37)

Leadership is distributed among staff and across instructional areas & roles.


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Leadership establish the right blend of tightness and looseness.” (Fullan, 2006, p. 37)

Turnover of key staff is managed by planned succession- & reading-based hiring practices.


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Klingner et al. (1999) found that when principals consistently supported what was presented in professional development, teachers implemented and maintained the practices.

Janette Klingner


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Leadership consistently supported what was presented in professional development, teachers implemented and maintained the practices.

  • District staff actively support scientifically research based reading improvement practices.


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Leadership consistently supported what was presented in professional development, teachers implemented and maintained the practices.

Common purpose

Curriculum

Instruction

Assessment

Use of time

Professional Development

Coaching/Support

Use of recurring resources

District support

RMC Implementation Checklist


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Common purpose consistently supported what was presented in professional development, teachers implemented and maintained the practices.

  • Leaders communicate regularly w/staff to sustain vision, beliefs, expectations, goals & commitments for reading success.


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Common purpose consistently supported what was presented in professional development, teachers implemented and maintained the practices.

  • Leaders develop & nurture a culture of doing things in ways consistent with scientifically research based reading practices.

  • Leaders acknowledge staff efforts that help make a difference in student performance.


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Common purpose consistently supported what was presented in professional development, teachers implemented and maintained the practices.

  • Leaders organize school structures (e.g., committees, schedules) & resources (budget, staffing) in alignment with effective reading practices.


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Common purpose consistently supported what was presented in professional development, teachers implemented and maintained the practices.

Leaders assure that all staff understand & act upon the variables which impact student learning.


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Common purpose consistently supported what was presented in professional development, teachers implemented and maintained the practices.

  • Leaders provide supervision and support to strengthen reading instruction.


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Common purpose consistently supported what was presented in professional development, teachers implemented and maintained the practices.

  • Leaders assure that all instructional areas collaborate to create a coordinated reading program.


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Common purpose consistently supported what was presented in professional development, teachers implemented and maintained the practices.

Instructional planning occurs within and across grade levels to assure consistency & seamlessness.


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Leadership consistently supported what was presented in professional development, teachers implemented and maintained the practices.

Common purpose

Curriculum

Instruction

Assessment

Use of time

Professional Development

Coaching/Support

Use of recurring resources

District support

RMC Implementation Checklist


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Curriculum consistently supported what was presented in professional development, teachers implemented and maintained the practices.

Differentiated programs are in place.


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Curriculum consistently supported what was presented in professional development, teachers implemented and maintained the practices.

All staff who teach instructional groups are trained on the programs they use.


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The relation between professional development and the tools used to teach reading is underestimated. Because teachers’ instructional practices are, in part, dependent on their instructional tools, efforts to enhance teachers’ effectiveness in the absence of effective tools (e.g., effectively designed materials, adequate time) may make the task not just more difficult but impossible.” (Chard, 2004, p. 180)

David Chard


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Curriculum used to teach reading is underestimated. Because teachers’ instructional practices are, in part, dependent on their instructional tools, efforts to enhance teachers’ effectiveness in the absence of effective tools (e.g., effectively designed materials, adequate time) may make the task not just more difficult but impossible.” (Chard, 2004, p. 180)

Supervision for fidelity (coach and principal).


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Curriculum used to teach reading is underestimated. Because teachers’ instructional practices are, in part, dependent on their instructional tools, efforts to enhance teachers’ effectiveness in the absence of effective tools (e.g., effectively designed materials, adequate time) may make the task not just more difficult but impossible.” (Chard, 2004, p. 180)

Some staff in school, district or region are trained as trainers of supplemental/intervention programs to facilitate further training needs future.


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Leadership used to teach reading is underestimated. Because teachers’ instructional practices are, in part, dependent on their instructional tools, efforts to enhance teachers’ effectiveness in the absence of effective tools (e.g., effectively designed materials, adequate time) may make the task not just more difficult but impossible.” (Chard, 2004, p. 180)

Common purpose

Curriculum

Instruction

Assessment

Use of time

Professional Development

Coaching/Support

Use of recurring resources

District support

RMC Implementation Checklist


Instruction l.jpg
Instruction used to teach reading is underestimated. Because teachers’ instructional practices are, in part, dependent on their instructional tools, efforts to enhance teachers’ effectiveness in the absence of effective tools (e.g., effectively designed materials, adequate time) may make the task not just more difficult but impossible.” (Chard, 2004, p. 180)

All instructional staff are both supported & supervised for high fidelity implementation (EAs, etc.).


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Instruction used to teach reading is underestimated. Because teachers’ instructional practices are, in part, dependent on their instructional tools, efforts to enhance teachers’ effectiveness in the absence of effective tools (e.g., effectively designed materials, adequate time) may make the task not just more difficult but impossible.” (Chard, 2004, p. 180)

Instructional planning is guided by frequent formative assessment data.


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Instruction used to teach reading is underestimated. Because teachers’ instructional practices are, in part, dependent on their instructional tools, efforts to enhance teachers’ effectiveness in the absence of effective tools (e.g., effectively designed materials, adequate time) may make the task not just more difficult but impossible.” (Chard, 2004, p. 180)

Additional targeted instruction is provided daily for strategic & intensive needs students to help “close the gap.”


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Instruction used to teach reading is underestimated. Because teachers’ instructional practices are, in part, dependent on their instructional tools, efforts to enhance teachers’ effectiveness in the absence of effective tools (e.g., effectively designed materials, adequate time) may make the task not just more difficult but impossible.” (Chard, 2004, p. 180)

Staff and students are acknowledged for progress toward larger successes.


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Instruction used to teach reading is underestimated. Because teachers’ instructional practices are, in part, dependent on their instructional tools, efforts to enhance teachers’ effectiveness in the absence of effective tools (e.g., effectively designed materials, adequate time) may make the task not just more difficult but impossible.” (Chard, 2004, p. 180)

Grade-level teams meet 1-2 times per month to review data and adjust instructional plans.


Instruction74 l.jpg
Instruction used to teach reading is underestimated. Because teachers’ instructional practices are, in part, dependent on their instructional tools, efforts to enhance teachers’ effectiveness in the absence of effective tools (e.g., effectively designed materials, adequate time) may make the task not just more difficult but impossible.” (Chard, 2004, p. 180)

Follow-up to assure revisions are implemented and are working.


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Leadership used to teach reading is underestimated. Because teachers’ instructional practices are, in part, dependent on their instructional tools, efforts to enhance teachers’ effectiveness in the absence of effective tools (e.g., effectively designed materials, adequate time) may make the task not just more difficult but impossible.” (Chard, 2004, p. 180)

Common purpose

Curriculum

Instruction

Assessment

Use of time

Professional Development

Coaching/Support

Use of recurring resources

District support

RMC Implementation Checklist


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In considering growth between bench-markings, these questions should be asked at each grade level …

  • What percentage of benchmark children remain at benchmark?

  • What percentage of them fell to Strategic?

  • What percentage fell to Intensive?


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In considering growth between bench-markings, these questions should be asked at each grade level …

  • What percentage of Strategic children remained Strategic?

  • What percentage of Strategic children rose to Benchmark?

  • What percentage fell to Intensive?


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In considering growth between bench-markings, these questions should be asked at each grade level …

  • What percentage of Intensive children remained Intensive?

  • What percentage of Intensive children rose to either Strategic or Benchmark?


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Remember … questions should be asked at each grade level …

  • At grades K and 1, the risk level is a weighted combination of DIBELS scores, called the Instructional Recommendation.

  • At grades 2 and 3, the risk level is ORF.

DIBELS screenings and rescreenings give us clues about student progress, but they do not tell the whole story. We combine different types of data to do that.


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Assessment questions should be asked at each grade level …

There is a competent trainer available locally to train staff on data collection and use.


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“A major purpose of formative evaluation is to provide information that enables individuals and groups to adjust their behavior. Data are meant to be communicated, and the form data analysis takes needs to be governed primarily by its relevance to the questions asked and its clarity in communicating results” (Joyce & Showers, 2002, p. 118)


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Assessment information that enables individuals and groups to adjust their behavior. Data are meant to be communicated, and the form data analysis takes needs to be governed primarily by its relevance to the questions asked and its clarity in communicating results” (Joyce & Showers, 2002, p. 118)

Staff are trained to interpret the meaning and implications of the data.


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Assessment information that enables individuals and groups to adjust their behavior. Data are meant to be communicated, and the form data analysis takes needs to be governed primarily by its relevance to the questions asked and its clarity in communicating results” (Joyce & Showers, 2002, p. 118)

School leaders assure that grade level teams meet regularly and have the support they need to be successful.


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Assessment information that enables individuals and groups to adjust their behavior. Data are meant to be communicated, and the form data analysis takes needs to be governed primarily by its relevance to the questions asked and its clarity in communicating results” (Joyce & Showers, 2002, p. 118)

Data are used in grade level team planning process to verify/modify instructional variables as needed.


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“Fortunately, a degree in statistics is not required to sensibly analyze data” (Joyce & Showers, 2002, p. 118)


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Leadership sensibly analyze data” (Joyce & Showers, 2002, p. 118)

Common purpose

Curriculum

Instruction

Assessment

Use of time

Professional Development

Coaching/Support

Use of recurring resources

District support

RMC Implementation Checklist


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Use of time sensibly analyze data” (Joyce & Showers, 2002, p. 118)

Adequate training time and collaborative planning time are built into the school schedule.


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Use of time sensibly analyze data” (Joyce & Showers, 2002, p. 118)

The school schedule and classroom schedules are built around reading as top priority.


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Use of time sensibly analyze data” (Joyce & Showers, 2002, p. 118)

Allocation of time to activities is prioritized; time needed is given to reading; less time to lower priorities.


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Use of time sensibly analyze data” (Joyce & Showers, 2002, p. 118)

Reading instructional time is protected from all controllable interruptions.


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Use of time sensibly analyze data” (Joyce & Showers, 2002, p. 118)

Leaders provide supervision & support to assure that planned time is actualized.

The principal supervises time usage within instruction & between instructional segments (transition times).


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Use of time sensibly analyze data” (Joyce & Showers, 2002, p. 118)

Differentiated instruction begins early the first month of school.


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“I support capturing the benefits of targeted, teacher-directed instruction provided to small groups of students organized by ability or skill” (Murphy, 2004, p. 76).

Joseph Murphy


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Leadership teacher-directed instruction provided to small groups of students organized by ability or skill” (Murphy, 2004, p. 76).

Common purpose

Curriculum

Instruction

Assessment

Use of time

Professional Development

Coaching/Support

Use of recurring resources

District support

RMC Implementation Checklist


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Professional development teacher-directed instruction provided to small groups of students organized by ability or skill” (Murphy, 2004, p. 76).

All staff who lead instructional groups are trained & supported in the programs they teach.


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Professional development teacher-directed instruction provided to small groups of students organized by ability or skill” (Murphy, 2004, p. 76).

All staff are trained to interpret data from the school’s formative assessment system.


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Professional development teacher-directed instruction provided to small groups of students organized by ability or skill” (Murphy, 2004, p. 76).

Staff new to the school are provided the training and support needed to do their job well.


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Professional development teacher-directed instruction provided to small groups of students organized by ability or skill” (Murphy, 2004, p. 76).

Training topics are identified from data on student performance.


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Professional development teacher-directed instruction provided to small groups of students organized by ability or skill” (Murphy, 2004, p. 76).

Training is differentiated by position and need.


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“Not all teachers should receive the same type, amount, or intensity of professional development.” (Chard, 2004, p. 188)*

*Chard believes this statement to be true but cautions that definitive research evidence does not yet exist.

David Chard


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Professional development intensity of professional development.” (Chard, 2004, p. 188)*

Training is valued, as indicated by allocation of time, resources and follow-up support to ensure that training goals are met.


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Leadership intensity of professional development.” (Chard, 2004, p. 188)*

Common purpose

Curriculum

Instruction

Assessment

Use of time

Professional Development

Coaching/Support

Use of recurring resources

District support

RMC Implementation Checklist


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Coaching Support intensity of professional development.” (Chard, 2004, p. 188)*

Adequate support is allocated to provide a useful level of the coaching function (e.g., alternate funding for coaching or an alternate model of support is provided beyond Reading First funding).


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Coaching Support intensity of professional development.” (Chard, 2004, p. 188)*

The instructional support function (coaching or alternate model) is provided to all staff who teach instructional groups (classroom teachers, instructional specialists, paraprofessionals).


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Coaching Support intensity of professional development.” (Chard, 2004, p. 188)*

Coaching support for staff is differentiated by individual need and linked to student performance.


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Coaching Support intensity of professional development.” (Chard, 2004, p. 188)*

Staff are acknowledged for efforts to improve implementation and to enhance student learning.

Coach or principal provides guidance and support for grade level team meetings in use of data to guide instruction.


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Leadership intensity of professional development.” (Chard, 2004, p. 188)*

Common purpose

Curriculum

Instruction

Assessment

Use of time

Professional Development

Coaching/Support

Use of recurring resources

District support

RMC Implementation Checklist


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Use of recurring resources intensity of professional development.” (Chard, 2004, p. 188)*

Regularly recurring school & district resources are optimized to support reading results.


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Use of recurring resources intensity of professional development.” (Chard, 2004, p. 188)*

Leaders seek additional resources at the local level to support reading results.


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Leadership intensity of professional development.” (Chard, 2004, p. 188)*

Common purpose

Curriculum

Instruction

Assessment

Use of time

Professional Development

Coaching/Support

Use of recurring resources

District support

RMC Implementation Checklist


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District support intensity of professional development.” (Chard, 2004, p. 188)*

District leaders are briefed and are knowledgeable about formative assessment results.


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District support intensity of professional development.” (Chard, 2004, p. 188)*

District leaders review student reading performance regularly and recognize staff for student progress.


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District support intensity of professional development.” (Chard, 2004, p. 188)*

District leaders maintain visibility in the school in support of higher reading achievement.


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District support intensity of professional development.” (Chard, 2004, p. 188)*

District leaders consider support needed for reading in the schools when allocating resources (staffing, budgeting, calendars) and setting district priorities.


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District support intensity of professional development.” (Chard, 2004, p. 188)*

District leaders explore how district policy, procedure and culture can support reading outcomes and take action on these opportunities.


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District support intensity of professional development.” (Chard, 2004, p. 188)*

District leaders assign, support and supervise principals & other staff to support reading outcomes. Every effort is made to find and assign to principal & supervisor positions the person whose training, experience, knowledge, skills, and credibility are best matched to the instructional needs of the students and the support needs of the staff.


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Leadership intensity of professional development.” (Chard, 2004, p. 188)*

Common purpose

Curriculum

Instruction

Assessment

Use of time

Professional Development

Coaching/Support

Use of recurring resources

District support

RMC Implementation Checklist


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“The starting point is to observe that nothing tried so far really works.” (Fullan, 2005, p. 13)

Michael Fullan


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References far really works.” (Fullan, 2005, p. 13)

Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain. Educational Researcher, 30(8), 3-15.

Chard, D. (2004). Toward a science of professional development in early reading instruction. Exceptionality, 12(3), 175-191.

Fullan, M. (2006). Turnaround leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Fullan, M. (2005). Leadership and sustainability: System thinkers in action. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Joyce, B., & Showers, B. (2002). Student achievement through staff development (3rd ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Kersten, J., & Pardo, L. (2007). Finessing and hybridizing: Innovative literacy practices in Reading First classrooms. The Reading Teacher, 61(2), 146-154.

Klingner, J. K., Vaughn, S., Hughes, M. T., & Arguelles, M. E. (1999). Sustaining research-based practices in reading: A 3-year follow-up. Remedial and Special Education, 20, 263-274.

Murphy, J. (2004). Leadership for literacy: Research-based practice, PreK-3. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Tabak, I. (2006). Prospects for change at the nexus of policy and design. Educational Researcher, 35(2), 24-30.


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Next steps: Only you know far really works.” (Fullan, 2005, p. 13)

We have prepared a checklist that you can use for Action Planning, and we will post it on the Architect site.


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