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TGF-β Superfamily

TGF-β Superfamily

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TGF-β Superfamily

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  1. TGF-β Superfamily Overview Transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) is the founding member of a large superfamily of secreted polypeptide growth factors, which additionally includes activins, nodal, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), growth and differentiation factors (GDFs) and others. From early development and continuously throughout adult life, TGF-β members carry out pivotal functions by regulating biological events ranging from gastrulation and organ morphogenesis to homeostatic tissue turnover. Figure 1. TGF-β superfamily proteins Major subfamilies Activins family Activins, members of the TGF-beta superfamily, are disulfide-linked dimeric proteins originally purified from gonadal fluids as proteins that stimulated pituitary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) release. Identified in 1986, activin 

  2. enhances FSH biosynthesis and secretion, and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. Many other functions have been found to be exerted by activin, including roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, metabolism, homeostasis, immune response, wound repair, and endocrine function. Activin is produced in the gonads, pituitary gland, placenta, and other organs. In the ovarian follicle, activin increases FSH binding and FSH-induced aromatization. Activin is strongly expressed in wounded skin, and overexpression of activin in epidermis of transgenic mice improves wound healing and enhances scar formation. Activin also regulates the morphogenesis of branching organs such as the prostate, lung, and especially kidney. BMP family  Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are secreted signaling molecules that comprise a subfamily of the TGF-beta superfamily. Originally discovered by their ability to induce the formation of bone and cartilage, BMPs are now considered to constitute a group of pivotal morphogenetic signals, orchestrating tissue architecture throughout the body. The important functioning of BMP signals in physiology is emphasized by the multitude of roles for dysregulated BMP signaling in pathological processes. Cancerous disease often involves misregulation of the BMP signaling system. GDF family  https://www.creative-diagnostics.com/tgf-b-superfamily.htm