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Chemistry Notes

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  1. Chemistry Notes

  2. Atoms The nucleus of an atom includes: protons and neutrons. Electrons orbit the nucleus in specific energy levels.

  3. Elements • The number of protons never changes – this equals the atomic number. (If the number of protons changes, it is a different element.) • The number of electrons generally equals the number of protons. (We won’t worry about exceptions in this class.) Atomic Number Atomic Mass

  4. Chemical Bonds 3 main types of chemical bonds: Covalent - atoms share electrons equally Ionic – one atom hogs the electrons from another (Think of it like a 5-year-old taking a 3-year-old’s toy and hogging it.)

  5. Macromolecules

  6. Organic VS Inorganic • Organic compounds contain carbon and are found in living things • Exceptions: hydrogencarbonates (bicarbonate HCO3-, carbonates (CO32−)and oxides of carbon (CO or CO2)

  7. Monomer Mono = one Mere = part • Sub units that are strung together to create larger molecules

  8. Polymer • Poly =many • Large molecule made up of multiple monomers

  9. Think Pair Share Create an analogy to explain the relationship between monomers and polymers.

  10. Dehydration Synthesis • Hydro = water • A reaction that links together monomers • Removes a –H from one monomer and a –OH from the other monomer • Those come together to form a water molecule H2O • Requires energy to build molecules Example: Your liver links glucoses together to form a stable storage molecule called glycogen (aka animal starch)

  11. Dehydration Synthesis Sucrose

  12. Hydrolysis • Hydro = water • Lysis = break • Breaks down polymers • Breaks a bond between monomers • Uses water to add an –H to one monomer and an –OH to the other • Releases energy • Example – salivary amylase breaks starch into disaccharide sugar in your mouth while you chew

  13. Hydrolysis of Sucrose

  14. Think Pair Share Draw a Venn Diagram to compare and contrast Hydrolysis and Dehydration Synthesis.

  15. Carbohydrates • Elements: C,H,O in 1:2:1 ratio • Generally in the shape of a hexagon or pentagon • Monomer: Monosaccharide (simple sugars - glucose) • Polymers: Disaccharide – 2 monosaccharides (complex sugars - sucrose) Polysaccharide – many monosaccharides (starch, cellulose) • Names end in –ose • Ose= sugar • Sacchar = sugar

  16. Monosaccharides • Use: quick energy • Foods: fruits (Fructose), candy (glucose), milk (Galactose) • Produced: process of photosynthesis in the organelle chloroplast • Your brain runs on glucose!

  17. Simple sugar foods

  18. Disaccharides • Use: quick energy • Foods: Table sugar (sucrose) Malt sugar (maltose - forms from breakdown of starches including grains) Milk sugar (lactose – think lactose intolerant) • Produced by plants storing products of photosynthesis process carried out in the organelle the chloroplast – think maple syrup

  19. Complex sugar foods

  20. Polysaccharides • Uses: quick energy, (but more stable to store than glucose) and structure (cell walls of plants made of cellulose) • Foods: Potatoes , bread, pasta (starch), Bran Fiber (cellulose indigestible for humans) • Produced by liver from excess blood sugar and made by plants into cell walls from glucose made during photosynthesis by the chloroplast

  21. Starchy foods

  22. Construct a Carbohydrate With a partner use marshmallows and toothpicks to construct the following molecules: • Monosaccharide • Disaccharide • Polysaccharide (4 glucoses long) You must have me check each molecule before moving on.

  23. Lipids (Oils, Fats, Waxes) • Elements: C,H,O but NOT in 1:2:1 ratio • Generally in the shape of a glycerol with one or 2 tails. • Monomers: Glycerol and Fatty Acid Chains • Polymers: Triglycerides made from1 glycerol plus 3 fatty acid chains

  24. Constructing a Triglyceride

  25. Lipids • Uses: Long term energy storage, cell membranes (cholesterol and phospholipids), • Foods: olive oil, avocados, butter, lard, beeswax • Produced by process of dehydration synthesis in the organelle smooth ER • Your body uses it for chemical messengers (steroids), insulation and padding your organs

  26. Oils VS Fats • Oils are liquid and fats are solid at room temperature • Oils are stored in seeds of plants • Fats are stored under skin or around organs of animals

  27. Think Pair Share What types of foods would you eat to avoid a high fat diet?

  28. Fatty foods

  29. Saturated VS Unsaturated Fats Unsaturated fats have one or more double bonds between carbons so they do not have all the possible hydrogens

  30. Constructing a Lipid With a partner use orange slices, licorice and toothpicks to construct a triglyceride molecule You must show me your molecule before you move on.

  31. Proteins • Elements: C, H, O, N, S, P • Monomer: Amino Acids (20 different) • Polymer: Polypeptides that are folded into proteins

  32. Amino Acid Structure

  33. 20 different amino acids

  34. Proteins • Uses: Structure of body tissues - muscles, bones, blood, hair, skin - most of your body • Foods: Egg whites, meat, fish, beans • Produced by process of protein synthesis in the organelle ribosome (made from recipe in DNA)

  35. Folding a Protein A – amino acid sequence -1st level B/C – amino acids are twisted or folded – 2nd level D – the twisted chain is folded – 3rd level E – multiple chains are arranged together – 4th level (hemoglobin)

  36. Think Pair Share What is the difference between a polypeptide and a protein?

  37. High Protein Foods

  38. Construct a Protein With a partner use Fruit Loops and string to construct a polypeptide chain 20 amino acids long. Then fold up your chain to create a protein.

  39. Nucleic Acids • Elements: C,H,O,N,P • Monomers: Nucleotides • Nucleotides are made of a phosphate group, a sugar (deoxyribose DNA or ribose RNA) and a Nitrogen Base • Nucleotides: adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine, (uracil) • Polymers: DNA, RNA

  40. Nucleotide Structure

  41. Nucleic Acids • Uses: DNA carries genetic information and directions to make proteins RNA makes proteins and is the structure of the ribosome • Produced by the process of DNA replication in the nucleus from existing DNA

  42. x

  43. DNA to Protein