Atoms The nucleus of an atom includes: protons and neutrons. Electrons orbit the nucleus in specific energy levels.
Elements • The number of protons never changes – this equals the atomic number. (If the number of protons changes, it is a different element.) • The number of electrons generally equals the number of protons. (We won’t worry about exceptions in this class.) Atomic Number Atomic Mass
Chemical Bonds 3 main types of chemical bonds: Covalent - atoms share electrons equally Ionic – one atom hogs the electrons from another (Think of it like a 5-year-old taking a 3-year-old’s toy and hogging it.)
Organic VS Inorganic • Organic compounds contain carbon and are found in living things • Exceptions: hydrogencarbonates (bicarbonate HCO3-, carbonates (CO32−)and oxides of carbon (CO or CO2)
Monomer Mono = one Mere = part • Sub units that are strung together to create larger molecules
Polymer • Poly =many • Large molecule made up of multiple monomers
Think Pair Share Create an analogy to explain the relationship between monomers and polymers.
Dehydration Synthesis • Hydro = water • A reaction that links together monomers • Removes a –H from one monomer and a –OH from the other monomer • Those come together to form a water molecule H2O • Requires energy to build molecules Example: Your liver links glucoses together to form a stable storage molecule called glycogen (aka animal starch)
Hydrolysis • Hydro = water • Lysis = break • Breaks down polymers • Breaks a bond between monomers • Uses water to add an –H to one monomer and an –OH to the other • Releases energy • Example – salivary amylase breaks starch into disaccharide sugar in your mouth while you chew
Hydrolysis of Sucrose http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Biological_Chemistry/Carbohydrates/Sucrose
Think Pair Share Draw a Venn Diagram to compare and contrast Hydrolysis and Dehydration Synthesis.
Carbohydrates • Elements: C,H,O in 1:2:1 ratio • Generally in the shape of a hexagon or pentagon • Monomer: Monosaccharide (simple sugars - glucose) • Polymers: Disaccharide – 2 monosaccharides (complex sugars - sucrose) Polysaccharide – many monosaccharides (starch, cellulose) • Names end in –ose • Ose= sugar • Sacchar = sugar
Monosaccharides • Use: quick energy • Foods: fruits (Fructose), candy (glucose), milk (Galactose) • Produced: process of photosynthesis in the organelle chloroplast • Your brain runs on glucose!
Disaccharides • Use: quick energy • Foods: Table sugar (sucrose) Malt sugar (maltose - forms from breakdown of starches including grains) Milk sugar (lactose – think lactose intolerant) • Produced by plants storing products of photosynthesis process carried out in the organelle the chloroplast – think maple syrup
Polysaccharides • Uses: quick energy, (but more stable to store than glucose) and structure (cell walls of plants made of cellulose) • Foods: Potatoes , bread, pasta (starch), Bran Fiber (cellulose indigestible for humans) • Produced by liver from excess blood sugar and made by plants into cell walls from glucose made during photosynthesis by the chloroplast
Construct a Carbohydrate With a partner use marshmallows and toothpicks to construct the following molecules: • Monosaccharide • Disaccharide • Polysaccharide (4 glucoses long) You must have me check each molecule before moving on.
Lipids (Oils, Fats, Waxes) • Elements: C,H,O but NOT in 1:2:1 ratio • Generally in the shape of a glycerol with one or 2 tails. • Monomers: Glycerol and Fatty Acid Chains • Polymers: Triglycerides made from1 glycerol plus 3 fatty acid chains
Lipids • Uses: Long term energy storage, cell membranes (cholesterol and phospholipids), • Foods: olive oil, avocados, butter, lard, beeswax • Produced by process of dehydration synthesis in the organelle smooth ER • Your body uses it for chemical messengers (steroids), insulation and padding your organs
Oils VS Fats • Oils are liquid and fats are solid at room temperature • Oils are stored in seeds of plants • Fats are stored under skin or around organs of animals
Think Pair Share What types of foods would you eat to avoid a high fat diet?
Saturated VS Unsaturated Fats Unsaturated fats have one or more double bonds between carbons so they do not have all the possible hydrogens
Constructing a Lipid With a partner use orange slices, licorice and toothpicks to construct a triglyceride molecule You must show me your molecule before you move on.
Proteins • Elements: C, H, O, N, S, P • Monomer: Amino Acids (20 different) • Polymer: Polypeptides that are folded into proteins
Proteins • Uses: Structure of body tissues - muscles, bones, blood, hair, skin - most of your body • Foods: Egg whites, meat, fish, beans • Produced by process of protein synthesis in the organelle ribosome (made from recipe in DNA)
Folding a Protein A – amino acid sequence -1st level B/C – amino acids are twisted or folded – 2nd level D – the twisted chain is folded – 3rd level E – multiple chains are arranged together – 4th level (hemoglobin)
Think Pair Share What is the difference between a polypeptide and a protein?
Construct a Protein With a partner use Fruit Loops and string to construct a polypeptide chain 20 amino acids long. Then fold up your chain to create a protein.
Nucleic Acids • Elements: C,H,O,N,P • Monomers: Nucleotides • Nucleotides are made of a phosphate group, a sugar (deoxyribose DNA or ribose RNA) and a Nitrogen Base • Nucleotides: adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine, (uracil) • Polymers: DNA, RNA
Nucleic Acids • Uses: DNA carries genetic information and directions to make proteins RNA makes proteins and is the structure of the ribosome • Produced by the process of DNA replication in the nucleus from existing DNA