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Women of the Middle Ages and Renaissance

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  1. Women of the Middle Ages and Renaissance

  2. Hildegard of Bingen • Born AD 1098 in Bermersheim, Gemany • Benedictine monastery • Died Sept. 17, 1179 • Canonized

  3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hildegard_of_Bingen

  4. Hildegard’s Education • Jutta of Sponheim • Prayers, chants, ten-stringed psaltery, sewing and embroidering • Benedictine nun • Deep knowledge of Scripture, Christian writers, and classical writers

  5. Hildegard’s Roles • Infirmarian (nurse-physician) • Abbess at 38—made changes for nuns • 6 major written works, 400 letters, 80 songs • First woman doctor • Linguist and musician • Preacher (sanctioned by Pope) Hildegard’s alphabet

  6. Hildegard and Education • Christian doctrine • First morality play • Natural science, medicine, and sexuality • Equality of women in the Church • Taught “theology of the feminine” • Education is an active, open forum for the human mind

  7. Hildegard von Bingen and the monk Volmar “Universal Man” from Liber divinorum operum, 1165

  8. Christine de Pizan • Born c. 1364, in Venice, Italy • Father • French King Charles V in 1368 • Married • Husband • Died 1430

  9. Christine’s Education • Read many of the books in the king’s library, including classics • Taught by mother to spin, weave, cook, manage household, and raise children • Taught by father to read French, Italian, and some Latin, and to write

  10. Christine’s Roles • Tried to manage deceased husband’s property • Took over as court secretary • Poet (100 ballades by 1402) • Self-educator • Feminist—spoke out against treatment of women • Moral educator • Biographer and autobiographer

  11. Contributions to Education • Themes of her writing • Genres • Liberal education for women • Teach children through “learning by doing”—make use of child’s natural curiosity

  12. Christine de Pizan instructing her son Christine de Pizan, showing the interior of an apartment at the end of the 14th or commencement of the 15th century

  13. Hrotsvitha of Gandersheim • Born AD 930-940, in Saxony • Canoness in convent in Gandersheim • Died c. 1002 AD

  14. Education and Women • Wrote epic poems, legends, and dramas about Christian themes • Knowledge of Latin and classical authors • Early European playwrite • Focus on female characters in roles of spiritual devotion

  15. Clare of Assisi • Born July, 1194 • Met St. Francis and confided in him her desire to live for God • Became nun, 1212 • Died August 1, 1253 • Canonized Sept. 26, 1255 by Pope Alexander IV

  16. Contributions • Order of Poor Ladies and abbess • Followed Franciscan monks • Humble, merciful, optimistic, charismatic • Saved convent • Taught women to have aims higher than worldliness Simone Martini, detail depicting Saint Clare from a fresco (1312–20) in the Lower Basilica of San Francesco, Assisi

  17. Catherine of Siena • Born March 25, 1347, in Siena, Italy • 23rd child out of 25 • Dominican Tertiary • Died April 29, 1380, in Rome • Canonized in 1461 by Pope Pius II Dominico Beccafumi, 1515

  18. Impact • Wrote many letters to important officials • Encourage peace and the return of the Papacy to Rome • Great works of early Tuscan literature • Tended to the sick • Served the poor

  19. Joan of Arc Julian of Norwich Eleanor of Aquitaine Theodora St. Monica (mother of St. Augustine) Isabella d’Este Marguerite de Porete Bridget of Sweden Gertrude the Great Dhuoda Catherine of Genoa Other Important Women

  20. Hildegard References • Murphy, Madonna. 2006. The History and Philosophy of Education: Voices of Educational Pioneers. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. Pp. 104-8 • Lerman, Kristina. 1995. The Life and Works of Hildegard von Bingen. Available at: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/med/hildegarde.html • Catholic Community Forum. Hildegard von Bingen. Available at: http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/sainth05.htm • Wikipedia. 2007. Hildegard of Bingen. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hildegard_of_Bingen

  21. Christine References • Murphy, Madonna. 2006. The History and Philosophy of Education: Voices of Educational Pioneers. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. Pp. 128-32 • Wikipedia.com. 2007. Christine de Pizan. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christine_de_Pizan

  22. Clare References • Catholic Community Forum. Clare of Assisi. Available at: http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintc03.htm • Robinson, Paschal. 2006. St. Clare of Assisi. Catholic Encyclopedia. Available at: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04004a.htm • Wikipedia.com. 2007. Clare of Assisi. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clare_of_Assisi

  23. Hrotsvitha References • Churchill, Laurie. 2000. Hrotsvit. Available at: http://go.owu.edu/~o5medww/hrotsvit/index.htm • Scheid, Nikolaus. 2006. Hrotsvitha. Catholic Encyclopedia. Available at: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07504b.htm

  24. Catherine of Siena References • Wikipedia.com. 2007. Catherine of Siena. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catherine_of_Siena • Gardner, Edmund. 2006. St. Catherine of Siena. Catholic Encyclopedia. Available at: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03447a.htm