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Unit 18. Acids and Bases. I. Defining Acids & Bases. A. Properties Acids Bases 1. Taste sour bitter (not in lab) ex: Citrus ex: soap fruits, yogurt vinegar

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unit 18

Unit 18

Acids and Bases

i defining acids bases
I. Defining Acids & Bases
  • A. Properties Acids Bases
  • 1. Taste sour bitter

(not in lab) ex: Citrus ex: soap

fruits, yogurt

vinegar

  • 2. Touch sting, feel sting eyes

(not in lab) like water only, feel

smooth,

slippery

i defining acids bases1
I. Defining Acids & Bases
  • Properties Acids Bases
  • 3. Reactions React Don’t react

w/metals Produce H2

  • 4. Electrical Electrolyte Electrolyte

conductivity

  • 5. Acid-Base blue-red red-blue

Indicators

One color in acids; another color in bases

(litmus)

i defining acids bases2
I. Defining Acids & Bases
  • Properties Acids Bases
  • 6. Neutralization add base add acid

(neutral)

neutralization reaction forms a salt

b definitions of acids bases
B. Definitions of Acids & Bases
  • 1. Arrhenius Definition:
  • An acid is a substance that dissociates in water to produce hydrogen ions (H+)
  • A base is a substance that dissociates in water to produce hydroxide ions (OH-)
  • Acids
  • HCl→ H+ + Cl-
  • HNO3→ H+ + NO3-
  • H2SO4→ 2H+ + SO42-
b definitions of acids bases1
B. Definitions of Acids & Bases
  • Bases
  • NaOH→ Na+ + OH-
  • KOH → K+ + OH-
  • Mg(OH)2 → Mg2+ + 2 OH-
  • Neutralization- acids + bases
  • H+(aq) + OH-(aq)→ H2O(l)
  • HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) → H2O(l) + NaCl(aq)
  • Acid base water salt
b definitions of acids bases2
B. Definitions of Acids & Bases
  • HNO3(aq) + KOH(aq) → H2O(l) + KNO3(aq)
  • Acid base water salt
  • 2HI(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq) → H2O(l) + CaI2(aq)
  • Acidbasewatersalt
  • Mg(s) + 2H+(aq) → Mg2+(aq) + H2(g)
  • Metalhydrogen ion metalionhydrogengas
b definitions of acids bases3
B. Definitions of Acids & Bases
  • 2. Bronsted-Lowry Definition:
  • An acid is any substance that can donate H+ ions.
  • A base is any substance that can accept H+ ions.
  • Advantages: not dependent on water

focuses solely on H+ ions

H+ = proton

b definitions of acids bases4
B. Definitions of Acids & Bases
  • An acid is a proton donor.
  • A base is a proton acceptor.
  • Monoprotic acids: donate one proton (HCl, HNO3)
  • Diprotic acids: donate two protons (H2SO4, H2CO3)
  • Triprotic acids: donate three protons (H3PO4)
b definitions of acids bases5
B. Definitions of Acids & Bases
  • Hydronium ion:
  • H+ + H2O → H3O+

hydronium ion

  • HCl(g) + H2O(l) → H3O+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
  • NH3(g) + H2O(l) → NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)
  • Amphoteric: substance that can act as either an acid or a base
c conjugate acid base pairs
C. Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs
  • NH3(g) + H2O(l) → NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)
  • Base acid conjugate conjugate

acid base

NH3 -- NH4+ base – conjugate acid

H2O -- OH- acid – conjugate base

HClacid conjugate base?

H2SO4 acid conjugate base?

c conjugate acid base pairs1
C. Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs
  • NH3(g) + H2O(l) → NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)
  • Base acid conjugate conjugate

acid base

NH3 -- NH4+ base – conjugate acid

H2O -- OH- acid – conjugate base

HCl acid conjugate base? Cl-

H2SO4 acid conjugate base? HSO4-