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BIODATA. NAMA : NGADIYO,SPD UNIT KERJA : SMAN-2 KUALA KAPUAS JABATAN : GURU MATA PELAJARAN BKS INGGRIS. TEMPAT TGL LAHIR : SUKUHARJO, 20-04-1969 HOBY : JOGGING ALAMAT : PEMUDA PERMAI BLOK B8 KUALA KAPUAS

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biodata
BIODATA
  • NAMA : NGADIYO,SPD
  • UNIT KERJA : SMAN-2 KUALA KAPUAS
  • JABATAN : GURU MATA PELAJARAN BKS INGGRIS

TEMPAT TGL LAHIR : SUKUHARJO, 20-04-1969

HOBY : JOGGING

ALAMAT : PEMUDA PERMAI BLOK

B8 KUALA KAPUAS

PEND. TERKHIR : S1 PEND BHS INGGRIS

UMS SOLO

PENGALAMA MENGAJAR

1992-1997- STM TB TAWANG SARI

1996-1998 STM IPTEK WERU

1998-2003 – SMUN1 KAPUAS TENGAH

2003-SEKARANG – SMAN 2 KUALA KAPUAS

reported speech
REPORTED SPEECH

BY

NGADIYO, SPD

SMAN 2 KUALA KAPUAS

reported speech indirect speech

Reported Speech (Indirect Speech)

If we report what another person has said, we usually do not use the speaker’s exact words (direct speech), but reported (indirect) speech. Therefore, you need to learn how to transform direct speech into reported speech. The structure is a little different depending on whether you want to transform a statement, question or request.

statements
Statements

When transforming statements, check whether you have to change:

  • pronouns
  • present tense verbs (3rd person singular)
  • place and time expressions
  • tenses (backshift)
  • TypeExampledirect speech“I speak English.”reported speech(no backshift)He says that he speaks English.reported speech(backshift)He said that he spoke English
example
Example

Direct speech“I speak English.”

Reported speech(no backshift)He says that he speaks English.

Reported speech(backshift)He said that he spoke English

questions
Questions

When transforming questions, check whether you have to change:

  • pronouns
  • present tense verbs (3rd person singular)
  • place and time expressions
  • tenses (backshift)
  • Also note that you have to:
  • transform the question into an indirect question
  • use the interrogative or if / whether
slide7
Example
  • with interrogative
  • direct speech“Why don’t you speak English?”
  • reported speech He asked me why I didn’t speak English.
  • without interrogative
  • direct speech“Do you speak English?”
  • reported speechHe asked me whether / if I spoke English
requests
Requests

When transforming questions, check whether you have to change:

  • pronouns
  • place and time expressions

Type

Example

direct speech“Carol, speak English.“

reported speechHe told Carol to speak English.

main clauses connected with and but
Main Clauses connected with and / but
  • If two complete main clauses are connected with ‚and‘ or ‚but‘, put ‚that‘ after the conjunction.
  • Example:
    • He said,“I saw her but she didn’t see me.“ – He said that he had seen her but that she hadn’t seen him.“
  • If the subject is left out in the second main clause (the conjunction is followed by a verb), do not use ‚that‘.
  • Example:
    • She said,“I am a nurse and work in a hospital.“ – He said that she was a nurse and worked in a hospital.“
tense of the introductory clause
Tense of the Introductory Clause
  • The introductory clause usually is in Past Tense.
  • Example:
    • He said that …
  • Present Tense is often used to report a conversation that is still going on, e. g. during a phone call or while reading a letter.
  • Example:
    • “I am fine.“ – Tom says that he is fine.
  • The introductory clause can also be in another tense. In the following table you can see, for which tense of the introductory clause you have to use backshift in reported speech.
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No Backshiftif introductory clause is in …
  • Simple Present (He says …)
  • Present Perfect (He has said …)
  • Future I will (He will say …)
  • Future I going to (He is going to say …)
slide12
Backshiftif introductory clause is in …
  • Simple Present (He says …)
  • Present Perfect (He has said …)
  • Future I will (He will say …)
  • Future I going to (He is going to say …)
  • Simple Past (He said …)
  • Past Perfect (He had said …)
  • Future II ( He will have said …)
  • Conditional I (He would say …)
  • Conditional II (He would have said …)
backshift in reported speech
Backshift in Reported Speech
  • The basic rules for backshift when transforming direct speech into reported speech are:The basic rules for backshift when transforming direct speech into reported speech are: