Energy Literacy • Energy IQ Game • What questions were most difficult for your group? • What answers surprised you? • What energy topics do you want to learn more about?
Energy Literacy • What does it mean to be a literate person? • What comes to mind when I say “energy literate person”? • If someone is an “ energy literate citizen” • What knowledge does this person possess? • What issues is this person familiar with? • What energy choices does this person make?
Energy Literacy • Do we have an energy literate society? • What is the cost of energy illiteracy? • What is the relationship between energy literacy and energy practices (our personal choices and actions?
Energy Literacy • “ Americans are, in general, the least energy-conscious people on the planet. We are not only profoundly ignorant about what energy is, and the critical role it has played and continues to play in economics and politics, but most of us simply don’t care about energy. Paul Roberts, The End of Oil
Fossil Fuels Chapter 19 Energy Sources Videoclip (7 minutes) YouTube - 300 Years of FOSSIL FUELS in 300 Seconds
I. Energy Consumption • A. Per Capita Energy Consumption • B. Energy Requirements for Food Production • 1. Developing Countries • 2. Developed Countries • C. Energy Consumption in the US
II. Fossil Fuels • A. Coal • 1. Grades of coal • 2. Most abundant • 3. Recovery • a. Surface mining • b. Subsurface mining
Mountaintop Removal http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XyzwCKoLhDo http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ziuFW-7h1LM
Coal Power FacilityHow Does it Create Electricity http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SeXG8K5_UvU
II. Fossil Fuels • A. Coal • 4. Safety Problems/Environmental Impact • a. Underground mining is hazardous. • b. Toxins prevent new colonization of plants. • c. Acid mine drainage • d. CO2 causes global warming • e. SO2 and NOx contribute to acid deposition.
Environmental Problems • Coal Ash http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bg_zttjzpL0
Is There Coal Ash Near Us? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pJ_d28mAXYU http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2nd3luqE3fw
Solutions • Solutions • a. Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act • b. Scrubbers • c. Clean coal technologies • i. fluidized bed combustion • ii. coal gasification and liquifaction
Solutions • Scrubbers
Solutions • Electrostatic Precipitators
II. Fossil Fuels • B. Oil and Natural Gas • 1. Refining • a. Crude oil • b. Petrochemicals • c. Natural gas • i. Liquified petroleum gas • ii. Methane • 2. Availability • a. Oil • b. Natural Gas Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries includes: Algeria, Angola, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Venezuela
The Hubbert Curve • Hubbert curve- a graph that shows the point at which world oil production would reach a maximum and the point at which we would run out of oil.
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KEeyDj_hRys From US News and Report • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EriEZY_wH0g Opinion
II. Fossil Fuels • B. Oil and Natural Gas • 3. Recovery • a. Geologic exploration • b. Wells drilled • c .”Fracking” -My Water's On Fire Tonight (The Fracking Song) - YouTube • 4. Environmental Impact • a. CO2 = Global Warming • b. NOX = Acid Deposition and Photochemical Smog • c. Transportation = Risk of spill • d. Offshore Oil Wells = Contamination • e. Oil Exploration = Threats to Ecosystems/Wildlife • 5. Solutions • a. Natural gas is cleaner burning • b. Cogeneration
Cogeneration • Cogeneration- using a fuel to generate electricity and to produce heat. • Example- If steam is used for industrial purposes or to heat buildings it is diverted to turn a turbine first. • This improves the efficiency to as high as 90%.
III. Synfuels • A. Tar Sands / Oil Sands • B. Oil Shales • C. Gas Hydrates • D. Coal Liquefaction • E. Coal Gasification
IV. An Energy Strategy for the US • A. Reasons • 1. Limited Fossil Fuel Supply • 2. Fossil Fuels = Pollution • 3. Dependence on Foreign Oil = Economic Vulnerability • B. Proposed Objectives • 1. Increase Energy Efficiency and Conservation • Decrease government subsidies • 2. Secure Fossil Fuel Energy Supplies • 3. Develop Alternative Energy Sources • 4. Use Cost/Benefit Analysis