Course Design. Preparing a Syllabus. “Once you have a sound course design, your syllabus almost writes itself.” -Teaching at its Best L. Nilson, 1998. Course Design. Content-Centered. What will I cover?. Learning-Centered. What will they learn?. Course Design. Learning-Centered.
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Course Design Preparing a Syllabus “Once you have a sound course design, your syllabus almost writes itself.” -Teaching at its Best L. Nilson, 1998
Course Design Content-Centered What will I cover? Learning-Centered What will they learn?
Course Design Learning-Centered Students learn how to find knowledge, they do not wait for faculty to provide it Ongoing student and course assessments show faculty where teaching is effective and ineffective Students’ performance on activities and assignments is assessed by more people than a single instructor Students construct the questions they need to ask, rather than expecting teachers to choose what students ought to know (Allen, 1996)
Course Design The General Design Consider your audience Establish tiered instructional objectives Evaluate content options and appropriate readings Determine class format Develop assessments
Course Design • Consider your audience! What preparation will most students bring?Do prerequisites guarantee this? Attitudes?Required course? Elective? What are the student expectations?Are these appropriate? Can they be incorporated into your teaching plan? Student long-range goals? Can flexibility be built in to accommodate this?
Course Design • Establish tiered instructional objectives “An instructional objective is a statement that gives instructional focus and direction, establishes guidelines for testing, and conveys one’s teaching intent to others.” -Stating Objectives for Classroom Instruction Gronlund, 1985
Course Design • Establish tiered instructional objectives Course Design by Objectives First define your “ultimate” end-of-course objectives Then work backwards…what will students have to be able to do before they can accomplish each “ultimate” objective? Continue working backwards to the most basic performances they must master to achieve the above
Content Skills Objectives Course Design
Course Design Assessments Skills Objectives
Format Skills Objectives Course Design
Instructional Objective (for a specific group of students) Skills (what students will need to be able to do in order to attain this objective) Content Class Format Assessment Format Syllabus Does your syllabus share with your students the thinking process that you followed to design this course?
Course Design • Establish basic learning objectives “Students will learn to appreciate their natural surroundings and will know that underlying geologic structures control the landforms we see”
Course Design • Translate these, if needed, to become effective instructional objectives “After working with slide images and through field experiences, students will be able to locate and identify faults, fractures and folds present in an unfamiliar landscape.”
Course Design • Identify the skills needed in order for students to be able to achieve the objective Recognize the surface expressions of different geologic structures AND how expression varies with topography Critically observe and analyze an unfamiliar landscape for diagnostic geologic contact relationships
Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Course Design Evaluation Bloom’s Taxonomy Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (1956)
Learning how to learn Motivation Human Dimension Integration Foundational Knowledge Application Course Design Fink’s Taxonomy To Improve the Academy (2001)
Course Design • Writing objectives Many Fewer Interpretations Interpretations To know To write To understand To recite To really understand To identify To appreciate To sort To fully appreciate To solve To grasp significance of To construct To enjoy To build To believe To compare To have faith in To contrast from Mager (1975) in Diamond (1998)
Course Design • Evaluate content options Rank the topics (rank highly your “essentials” AND those that meet student needs or expectations) Slash, burn & distill (this always hurts, but designing courses backwards will help establish priorities) Compare to your “full array” of content options is something missing that you value? Are you missing a major learning goal?
Course Design • Evaluate readings Consider the level(and financial resources!)of your students What is the purpose of the reading? How will it support the course? How often will students use this resource? Read a variety of texts ...unless you wrote the text, you won’t find exactly what you need… BUT... Is a course reader better? ...can better suit to your needs...but takes a huge effort to integrate well...
Course Design • Determine the class format Lecture based? Discussion based? Need labs or experiential components? How and when will student inquiry take place? What does the phrase “knowledge transfer” conjure up for you?
Course Design Encourage Active Learning From Davidson & Ambrose, 1994 Students should: be prepared to work hard when they enter a classroom… take an active role in acquiring and maintaining new information during the class… continue their interest after class hours What questions will you ask... what examples will you use... to help stimulate interest? How will you hear from students during class?
Course Design Design Effective Learning From Davidson & Ambrose, 1994 Most of the learning in a typical course takes place outside of class… design meaningful after class projects, labs, readings… prepare assignments that apply class material to new contexts How does each experience contribute to the goals for the course?
Course Design Provide Prompt Feedback From Davidson & Ambrose, 1994 Learning is an iterative process… apply, discover errors, try again... plan to provide prompt and supportive corrections keep in mind that not all feedback need be graded How long will it take you to return graded assignments? How can you provide immediate feedback? How can the students themselves provide feedback?
Course Design Emphasize importance of time and effort spent learning… From Davidson & Ambrose, 1994 Everyone who wants to learn a subject must put in time and effort Students must make effective use of class and study time Will you discuss time management with your class? What study strategies will be most successful for the course objectives?
Course Design Encourage Student-Faculty Contact... From Davidson & Ambrose, 1994 This is at the very heart of the educational process Allow time both within and outside of class to display enthusiasm, sensitivity, and command of content How many students will you know by name? How open will your office door be? How will you show students that you are receptive?
Course Design Encourage Cooperation among Students From Davidson & Ambrose, 1994 improve collaborative skills develop personal responsibility enhance self-esteem build confidence in science Will in-class or out-of-class projects be assigned that require students to work together? What do you need to learn about directing successful group work?
Course Design Communicate High, Attainable Expectations From Davidson & Ambrose, 1994 attendance and class participation are greatest in courses that demand a lot students often give highest ratings to their most difficult (yet attainable) courses What are your expectations for this course? What will students be able to do after this course? How high will you set the bar? How will you “catch” struggling students?
Course Design Respect diverse talents and ways of learning... From Davidson & Ambrose, 1994 each student brings a unique set of abilities, interests, and experiences into class people process and learn science in very different ways What strategies will you use to reach students with various learning preferences? Will you challenge students to develop new learning styles? How will you discover whether or not your teaching style is reaching all students?
Course Design • Develop an assessment plan… for them What have your students learned? How will students acquire the skills you value? Let the course objectives shine through your assessment… end-of-course objectives should map out your projects, homework, exams, etc.
Course Design • Develop an assessment plan… for you... Options for getting feedback… (CATs) Classroom Assessment Techniques Mid-term formative evaluations Professional feedback… classroom consultations, videos, etc.
Course Design Sources Allen, L. R. (1996) “An Instructional Epiphany.” Change, Mar.-Apr. 1996, 28 (2), 52. Angelo, T.A. and Cross, K.P (1993) “Classroom Assessment Techniques,” Jossey-Bass Publ., San Francisco, 427p. Davidson, C.I. and Ambrose, S.A. (1994) “The New Professor’s Handbook: A Guide to Teaching and Research in Engineering and Science.” Anker Publ. Co., Bolton, MA 199p. Diamond, R.M. (1998) “Designing & Assessing Courses and Curricula: A Practical Guide.” Jossey-Bass Publ., San Francisco, 321p. Fink, L.D. (2001) “Higher-Level Learning: The First Step Toward More Significant Learning” in To Improve the Academy, v. 19 Anker Publ., Nilsen, L. B. (1998) “Teaching at its Best: A Research-Based Resource for College Instructors.” Anker Publ. Co., Bolton, MA 219p.
Course Design Other Good Reads Boice, R. (2000) “Advice for New Faculty Members: Nihil Nimus,” Allyn & Bacon Publ., 319p. Davis, B. G., (1993) “Tools for Teaching,” Jossey-Bass Publ., 429p. Reis, R..M. (1997) “Tomorrow’s Professor: Preparing for Academic Careers in Science and Engineering,” IEEE Press, NY., 416p.