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Tritrichomonas foetus in a cat. * Lisa Pohlman , *Marjory Artzer , **Verona Chaffin. * Kansas State University, Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, **Allcare Animal Hospital, Shawnee,KS. History; 16-week-old intact female, Bengal (Poppy). RDVM December 28, 2007

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tritrichomonas foetus in a cat

Tritrichomonas foetus in a cat

*Lisa Pohlman, *Marjory Artzer, **Verona Chaffin

*Kansas State University, Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology,

**Allcare Animal Hospital, Shawnee,KS

Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only

history 16 week old intact female bengal poppy
History; 16-week-old intact female, Bengal (Poppy)

RDVM December 28, 2007

  • Diarrhea, seromucoid nasal discharge & mild failure to thrive
    • De-wormed, antibiotics, SC fluids & sent home

January 7th Recheck

  • Nasal discharge had cleared
  • Diarrhea worse → diagnosed coccidia
    • Albon

January 11th Recheck

  • Diarrhea
  • Fecal wet mount → abundant motile organisms
    • A video recording of the organisms
    • A saline diluted, air-dried fecal smear

Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only

slide4
Wright’s 100x
  • A variety of bacteria (mostly rods), debris, and protozoal organisms (9 to 12 um x 6 to 9 um)
  • with 3 anterior flagella, 1 posterior flagella,1 nucleus, undulating membrane, central axostyle

Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only

further tests diagnosis
Further tests & Diagnosis
  • Culture (In PouchTM TF-Feline)
  • PCR
  • Tritrichomonasfoetus

Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only

trichomonads
Tritrichomonas foetusTrichomonads
  • Primitive eukaryotic organisms
  • Obligate protozoan symbionts
  • Multiple anterior flagella
  • Undulating membrane
  • Reproduction via binary fission
  • Trophozoites are transferred from host to host directly
  • Commensal & pathogenic species identified
    • Tritrichomonasfoetus -- pathogenic
    • Pentatrichomonashominis – non-pathogenic

Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only

http://vetsci.sdstate.edu/vetext/Trichomoniasis%20Range%20

Beef%20Cow%20Symposium%20web.htm

tritrichomonas foetus
Tritrichomonas foetus

Cattle

    • Venereal pathogen

Pigs

    • gastrointestinal tract & nasal mucosa
      • T. foetus = T. suis

Dogs

    • Diarrhea

Cats

  • Enteric pathogen of cats
  • Uterus

Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only

t foetus enteric pathogen in cats
T. foetus; Enteric Pathogen in Cats
  • Colonizes colon
  • +/- observable symptoms
    • Chronic diarrhea
    • Feces dribble from anus
  • Young, densely housed cats
  • ~1/3 of the purebred feline population infected
  • Absence of diarrhea ≠ cat free of infection
  • Misidentified as
    • Giardia
    • Pentatrichomonas hominis

Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only

pentatrichomonas tritrichomonas giardia spp hominis foetus
Pentatrichomonas Tritrichomonas Giardia spp. hominis foetus
  • Non-pathogenic
  • 5 anterior flagella

http://vetsci.sdstate.edu/vetext/Trichomoniasis%20Range%20

Beef%20Cow%20Symposium%20web.htm

Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only

http://www.st.rim.or.jp/~samacha/

CareF/SickF/Protozo/Proto.html

http://winnielovesus.blogspot.com/2007/09/

one-week-done-35-to-go.html

histologic features of t foetus m j yaeger j l gookin vet pathol 42 797 804 2005
Histologic Features of T. foetusM. J. Yaeger & J. L. Gookin, Vet Pathol 42:797-804 (2005)
  • Colonic trichomonads (6 sections recommended)
  • Lymphoplasmacytic & neutrophilic colitis
  • Eosinophils not a prominent feature
  • Crypt epithelial cell
    • Hypertrophy
    • Hyperplasia
    • ↑ mitotic activity
    • ↓ goblet cells
  • Crypt microabscesses
  • Attenuated superficial colonic mucosa
  • +/- Macrophages

Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only

prognosis other concerns
Prognosis & Other Concerns

Infected Cats

  • No effective antibiotic treatment
  • Overall health not adversely affected
  • ~90% diarrhea will stop within two years
  • Remain source of infection to other cats

Hypothesis

  • Prolonged presence of organisms
    • Predisposition to IBD?

Zoonotic Potential?

  • Human infection with T. foetus (1 case)
    • Immunosuppressed & previous stem cell transplantation

Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only

slide12
M. J. Yaeger and J. L. Gookin

Vet Pathol 42:797-804 (2005)

With Permission

Unresponsive to antimicrobial treatment

T.foetus

PCR

Histopathology

Min. 6 sections

Culture

In PouchTM TF media

  • Saline diluted feces
  • Motile organisms
  • Air dried smear

Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • Shon Koenig
  • Shelly Christenson
  • Nathan Rodriguez

Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only

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