E r i k E r i k s o n “It is human to have a long childhood: it is civilized to have an even longer childhood. Long childhood makes a technical and mental virtuoso out of man, but it also leaves a life-long residue of emotional immaturity in him” (1902-1994)
1. Infancy: Birth to 18 MonthsTrust vs. Mistrust Virtue: Drive and Hope Harmful: Sensory distortion & Social withdrawal Affirmations needed by all babies from birth to six months: We're glad you're here, because this is where you belong. We love holding you and having you near us. We will provide what you need because your needs are important to us. You can take your time to grow up at your own pace. We cherish you because you are a gift to the world. Affirmations needed by all babies from six to eighteen months of age: We encourage you to be curious. You can use all of your senses to discover the world around you. When you explore, we will support and protect you. We love you when you are active and also when you are quiet. We delight in your discoveries. We know that learning to do things by yourself is fun.
2. Early Childhood: 18 Months to 3 YearsAutonomy vs. Shame Virtue: Self-control, Courage, and Will Harm: Impulsivity & Compulsion Affirmations needed by all babies from eighteen months to three years of age—and by everyone else as well: • We're glad when you think for yourself. • You can learn to understand your feelings. • It's okay to be angry and frustrated, but we won't let you hurt yourself or others. • We don't mind if you say "no." You can test limits as much as you need to. • We enjoy your creativity. • You can discover for yourself what you need.
3. Play Age: 3 to 5 YearsInitiative vs. Guilt Virtue: Purpose Harm: Ruthlessness & Inhibition Affirmations needed by all babies from three to six years of age: • We enjoy having you explore who you are and finding out who other people are. • You can feel powerful and capable and still ask for help when you want it. • You can learn that behavior has consequences. • You can imagine things without being afraid they will come true. • We gladly give you our support and love. • All of your feelings are okay with us.
4. School Age: 6 to 12 YearsIndustry vs. Inferiority Virtue: Method and Competence Harm: Limited Skills & Inertia Affirmations needed by all children from six to thirteen years of age—and by everyone else as well: • We encourage you to develop your own special talents. • You can be responsible for your choices and learn from your mistakes. • You can learn how to follow the rules that help you live well with others. • We encourage your learning about the world and your place in it. • You can discover how to manage both challenges and frustration. • We love you even when we disagree.
5. Adolescence: 12 to 18 YearIdentity vs. Role Confusion Virtue: Devotion and Fidelity Harm: Fanaticism & Rebellion Affirmations needed by all children from thirteen to nineteen years of age—and by everyone else as well: • We enjoy having you develop your own interests. • You can be responsible for your own needs, feelings and behaviors and still ask for our support. • You can recognize the difference between feelings of friendship and sexual feelings. • We encourage you to discover a purpose for your life and pursue your goals with passion. • We look forward to knowing you as an adult and our love is always with you. • You can stand up for your beliefs and also respect the convictions of others.
6. Young adulthood: 18 to 35 Intimacy and Solidarity vs. IsolationVirtue: Affiliation and LoveHarm: Promiscuity & Exclusivity 7. Middle Adulthood: 35 to 55 or 65Generativity vs. Self absorption or StagnationVirtue: Production and CareHarm: Overextension & Minimalism 8. Late Adulthood: 55 or 65 to DeathEgo Development Outcome: Integrity vs. DespairVirtue: WisdomHarm: Presumption & Despair
References • http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/erikson.html • www.childhoodaffirmations.com/stage7-intro.html • http://www.laurelton-hall.com/Archives.html • Maier, Henry W., (1969). Three Theories Of Child Development. New York: Harper & Row Drawing by Erik Erikson,1927