E r i k E r i k s o n. “It is human to have a long childhood: it is civilized to have an even longer childhood. Long childhood makes a technical and mental virtuoso out of man, but it also leaves a life-long residue of emotional immaturity in him”. (1902-1994).
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“It is human to have a long childhood: it is civilized to have an even longer childhood. Long childhood makes a technical and mental virtuoso out of man, but it also leaves a life-long residue of emotional immaturity in him”
1. Infancy: Birth to 18 MonthsTrust vs. Mistrust Virtue: Drive and Hope Harmful: Sensory distortion & Social withdrawal
Affirmations needed by all babies from birth to six months:
We're glad you're here, because this is where you belong.
We love holding you and having you near us.
We will provide what you need because your needs are important to us.
You can take your time to grow up at your own pace.
We cherish you because you are a gift to the world.
Affirmations needed by all babies from six to eighteen months of age:
We encourage you to be curious.
You can use all of your senses to discover the world around you.
When you explore, we will support and protect you.
We love you when you are active and also when you are quiet.
We delight in your discoveries.
We know that learning to do things by yourself is fun.
2. Early Childhood: 18 Months to 3 YearsAutonomy vs. Shame Virtue: Self-control, Courage, and Will Harm: Impulsivity & Compulsion
Affirmations needed by all babies from eighteen months to three years of age—and by everyone else as well:
Affirmations needed by all babies from three to six years of age:
4. School Age: 6 to 12 YearsIndustry vs. Inferiority Virtue: Method and Competence Harm: Limited Skills & Inertia
Affirmations needed by all children from six to thirteen years of age—and by everyone else as well:
5. Adolescence: 12 to 18 YearIdentity vs. Role Confusion Virtue: Devotion and Fidelity Harm: Fanaticism & Rebellion
Affirmations needed by all children from thirteen to nineteen years of age—and by everyone else as well:
7. Middle Adulthood: 35 to 55 or 65Generativity vs. Self absorption or StagnationVirtue: Production and CareHarm: Overextension & Minimalism
8. Late Adulthood: 55 or 65 to DeathEgo Development Outcome: Integrity vs. DespairVirtue: WisdomHarm: Presumption & Despair
Drawing by Erik Erikson,1927