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Aqueous Solutions. Section 17.3. After reading Section 17.3, you should know:. The meaning of “likes dissolve likes” and how to determine which compounds will dissolve into each other The difference between strong, weak and non-electrolytes

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aqueous solutions

Aqueous Solutions

Section 17.3

after reading section 17 3 you should know
After reading Section 17.3, you should know:
  • The meaning of “likes dissolve likes” and how to determine which compounds will dissolve into each other
  • The difference between strong, weak and non-electrolytes
  • The difference between hygroscopic and deliquescent substances
solvent vs solute
Solvent vs Solute
  • Aqueous Solutions – water samples containing dissolved substances
  • Solvent – the substance doing the dissolving
  • Solute – the substance being dissolved
  • Example of an aqueous solution = salt water
    • Solvent = water
    • Solute = salt
review ionic and covalent
Review: Ionic and Covalent
  • Ionic comounds = metal + nonmetal
    • Held together by ionic charges
  • Polar Covalent molecules = 2 or more nonmetals
    • Have a slight charge due to electronegativity differences
  • Nonpolar Covalent molecules = 2 or more nonmetals
    • Do not have a charge because the shape of the molecule cancels the electronegativity differences out
slide5

“Likes Dissolve Likes”

    • Ionic compounds and polar compounds will dissolve in other ionic and polar compounds
      • Ionic compounds have a full charge and polar compounds have a slight charge, so the charges are attracted to each other.
    • Nonpolar compounds will only dissolve in other nonpolar compounds
slide6

Salt will dissolve in water

    • Salt is ionic, water is polar
  • Oil and water do not mix
    • Oil is nonpolar and water is polar
solutions
Solutions
  • Solutions are homogenous mixtures
  • Solvation – the process that occurs when a solute dissolves
  • Example: salt dissolving in water
    • Salt is an ionic compound, water is a polar molecule
    • Animation of salt water and the interactions between the molecules
electrolytes and nonelectrolytes
Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes
  • Electrolytes – compounds that conduct an electric current in aqueous solution or the molten state
    • All ionic compounds are electrolytes
  • Nonelectrolytes - compounds that do not conduct an electric current in aqueous solution or the molten state
slide9

Strong electrolyte – when a substance is dissolved and almost all of the solute molecules separate into ions

  • Weak electrolytes – when a substance is dissolved and only a fraction of the dissolved solute separate into ions
  • Table 17.3 on page 485
water of hydration
Water of Hydration
  • Water of hydration is the water contained in a crystal
  • Hydrate – a compound containing water
    • Example: copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate
      • CuSO4*5H2O
  • Table 17.4 on page 486
slide11

Effloresce – process that occurs when a hydrate has a vapor pressure higher than that of water vapor in the air

  • Hygroscopic – substances that remove water from the air
    • Have low vapor pressure
    • Used as desiccants or drying agents
slide12

Deliquescent – compounds that remove a sufficient water from the air to dissolve completely and form solutions

    • When a substance has a lower vapor pressure that that of the water in the air
    • Example: solid NaOH pellets – react with moisture from the air and will “melt” over time
slide13

After reading Section 17.3, you should know:

  • The meaning of “likes dissolve likes” and how to determine which compounds will dissolve into each other
  • The difference between strong, weak and non-electrolytes
  • The difference between hygroscopic and deliquescent substances