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Protein modification. 16-1. Protein modifications different types, including co-translational and post-translational inteins. It is estimated that the human proteome consists of ~300,000 different proteins, or about 10X more than the number of genes (!)

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Protein modification

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    1. Protein modification 16-1 • Protein modifications • different types, including co-translational and post-translational • inteins It is estimated that the human proteome consists of ~300,000 different proteins, or about 10X more than the number of genes (!) - protein modifications - differential splicing

    2. Protein modifications: formation or breakage of covalent bonds 16-2 • disulfide bond formation - covered • addition of a small moiety • phosphorylation, glycosylation, methylation, hydroxylation, etc. - today • truncation • self-cleavage - viral capsid protease (SCP) - covered - intramolecular chaperones - covered • cleavage of signal sequences - signal peptidases • protein splicing: inteins – covered in this lecture • intermolecular cleavage (e.g., by proteasome) - presentation • addition of ubiquitin or ubiquitin-like protein - presentation usually specified by amino acids at certain positions, or various degenerate or specific motifs found in proteins

    3. N- and C-terminal modifications: acylation, methylation, amidation 16-3 • frequently, the N-terminal methionine is not present in mature proteins • Acylation includes acetylation, formylation, pyroglutamylation, myristoylation • ~80% eukaryotic cytosolic proteins are acetylated at their N-termini • makes N-terminal (Edman) sequencing difficult without special treatment - requires enzymatic removal or treatment with chemicals that may cleave labile peptide bonds • formyl group occurs mostly as modification of the initiator methionine in bacteria • pyroglutamate represents a cyclic amide generated from an N-terminal glutamic acid or glutamine residue - can be generated by spontaneous cyclization but could also be an artifact of protein isolation under slightly acidic conditions • myristoylation is a co-translational lipid modification that is common to many signalling proteins; occurs only on N-terminal glycine residues

    4. formyl transferase (FMT) peptide deformylase (PDF) methionine aminopeptidase (MAP)

    5. N- and C-terminal modifications: methylation and amidation 16-4 • Methylation of N-terminal amino groups is rare; different methylases do modify specific proteins, including ribosomal proteins • methylation of ribosomes affects their function • Amidation of peptides (e.g., hormones) sometimes occurs at the C-terminus

    6. Modification of individual side chains:phosphorylation and glycosylation 16-5 • Phosphorylation • phosphorylation can affect the activity and structure of proteins • perhaps as many as 1 in 8 proteins are phosphorylated • too many examples to list: e.g. HSF activity is modulated by phosphorylation; cell-signalling molecules are best characterized • Glycosylation • glycosylation takes place in the ER, golgi by a variety of enzymes • glycosylated proteins often found on the surface of cells or are secreted • folding/assembly of glycosylated proteins requires ER molecular chaperones • addition of GlcNAc (beta-O-linked N-acetylglucosamine) residues occurs in the cytoplasm and nucleus - modifications are carried out by O-linked GlcNac transferases (OGTs) - proteins modified by O-GlcNAc include: cytoskeletal proteins, hormone receptors, kinases & other signalling molecules, nuclear pore proteins, oncogenes, transcription factors, tumor suppresors, transcriptional & translational machinery, viral proteins

    7. Modification of individual side chains:various others 16-6 • Prenylation, fatty acid acylation • proteins without major hydrophobic (transmembrane) domains can be directed to membranes by prenylation of their C-terminal cysteine residue • Hydroxylation and oxidation, carboxylation • a variety of derivatives are known; e.g., hydroxyamino acids (hydroxyproline) are very common in collagen • Selenocysteine/selenomethionine modification • essentially all selenium in cells occurs as selenocysteine • selenomethionine is a useful too for protein crystallography: can grow cells in the presence of the modified amino acid and produce protein containing se-Met; can deduce ‘phase’ of protein this way

    8. Identification of modifications Fig. 1. O-GlcNAc is an abundant modification of nucleocytoplasmic proteins. Nucleo-cytoplasmic proteins from HeLa cells were immunopurified with an O-GlcNAc-specific antibody and stringently washed, and the O-GlcNAc-containing proteins were specifically eluted with free GlcNAc. The resulting proteins were separated on two-dimensional gels and visualized by silver staining. pI, isoelectric point; MW, molecular weight. From Wells et al. (2001) Science291, 2376-8. use 2D gel electrophoresis to detect modified proteins in whole-cell (or partly purified) lysates 16-7 - mass spectrometry is the most common today: - can identify modifying group with great precision, especially in combination with proteolytic digestion of proteins and HPLC analysis - incorporation of radioactive groups by addition to growing cells e.g., 75Se-labeling and chromatographic isolation of proteins Note that most of the modifiers can be purchased in radiolabeled form - antibody cross-reactivity: e.g., antibody against phosphotyrosine small-molecule modifications can affect not only the activity, but also the structure of proteins, much as ligands such as ATP can affect the activity and structure of proteins

    9. Presentation: proteasome-mediated co-translational protein biogenesis 16-8 Lin et al. (1998) Cotranslational biogenesis of NF-kappaB p50 by the 26S proteasome. Cell92, 819-828.

    10. Protein splicing: inteins 16-9 • Inteins represent the protein equivalent to the genomic DNA intron: elements that are spliced out of the final (mature) product • unlike introns, inteins are self-splicing through the use of an endonuclease • used commercially in biochemical applications (explanation on board) - inteins are 134-608 aa - the mini-inteins do not have the endonuclease domain but have other characteristics of inteins Legend: Schematic illustration of protein splicing (upper part) and intein structure (lower part). The two terminal regions of the intein sequence form the splicing domain of a typical bifunctional intein. Six conserved sequence motifs (A to G) are shown. The intein sequence begins with the first amino acid of motif A and ends with the second last amino acid of motif G. Motifs C and E are the dodecapeptide motifs of endonuclease. A star (*) stands for hydrophobic amino acids (V, L, I, M). A dot (.) stands for a nonconserved position. adapted from Liu, X.-Q. (2000) Annu. Rev. Gen.34, 61.

    11. Protein splicing: inteins 16-10 Legend: Scenarios of intein evolution. A, loss of the endonuclease domain. B, breaking the intein sequence. C, loss of the splicing function. D, replacing the C-extein with a cholesterol molecule (green dot). E, loss of C-terminal cleavage and splicing. F, loss of N-terminal cleavage and splicing. G, placing intein fragments on two ends of a protein. H, breaking intein into 3 fragments. I, separating a middle fragment of the intein from the rest. J, presence of two different split inteins. Scenarios A to D are based on examples observed in nature. Scenarios E to G are based on engineered artificial inteins. Scenarios H to J are purely hypothetical.

    12. Intein protein splicing: mechanism 16-11 • N-extein represents the N-terminal polypeptide segment that is retained • C-extein represents the C-terminal segment that is retained • the Intein is what is spliced out (much as a genomic DNA intron) • Cys1, Asn154 and Ser155 represent conserved residues involved in the splicing reaction

    13. Hedgehog (Hh)processing cholesterol (A) catalytic residues of the Hh protein and (B) the crystal structure of the spliced protein - modification of SH by cholesterol is required for its activation - process similar to intein splicing Hall et al. (1997) Crystal Structure of a Hedgehog Autoprocessing Domain: Homology between Hedgehog and Self-Splicing Proteins. Cell 91, 85-97. 16-12 Secreted signaling proteins encoded by the hedgehog gene family induce specific patterns of differentiation in a variety of tissues and structures during vertebrate and invertebrate development. All known signaling activities of Hh proteins reside in Hh-N; Hh-C is responsible for both the peptide bond cleavage and cholesterol transfer components of the autoprocessing reaction.

    14. Legend to right-hand Figure, part (A) 16-13 Intramolecular Autoprocessing Reactions of Hh and Self-Splicing Proteins (A) Schematic drawing of a two-step mechanism for Hh autoprocessing (Porter et al., 1996b ). Aided by deprotonation by either solvent or a base (B1), the thiol group of Cys-258 initiates a nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon of the preceding residue, Gly-257. This attack results in replacement of the peptide bond between Gly-257 and Cys-258 by a thioester linkage (step 1). The emerging -amino group of Cys-258 likely becomes protonated, and an acid (A) is shown donating a proton. The thioester is subject to a second nucleophilic attack from the 3 hydroxyl group of a cholesterol molecule, shown here facilitated by a second base (B2), resulting in a cholesterol-modified amino-terminal domain and a free carboxy-terminal domain. In vitro cleavage reactions may also be stimulated by addition of small nucleophiles including DTT, glutathione, and hydroxylamine.