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Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

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Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

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  1. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Module 4:1

  2. What is a Septic System? Module 4:2 Photo credit: MOEE

  3. Evapotranspiration Septic tank Leaching bed Soil absorption Well Filtration and Treatment Ground water Streams, lakes Waste to Water Module 4:3

  4. The Septic Tank • Inlet pipe • Baffles • Water & anaerobic bacteria • Chambers • Partition wall with holes • Effluent filter • Outlet pipe Module 4:4

  5. Inlet Baffles Module 4:5

  6. Flow Through the Tank Module 4:6

  7. Partition wall Module 4:7

  8. Flow Through the Tank (cont’d) Module 4:8

  9. Effluent Filters OSI Biotube Filter Zabel Effluent Filter Module 4:9

  10. The Distribution System • Pump • Distribution box • Distribution pipes Module 4:10

  11. Distribution Box Module 4:11

  12. The Leaching Bed Module 4:12

  13. The Importance of Soil Module 4:13

  14. Septic System Capacity Determined by: • House size • Bedrooms • Sinks, tubs, toilets • Dishwashers, washing machines, water-using appliances Module 4:14

  15. Location of a Septic System Module 4:15

  16. Causes of Failing Systems • Improper siting or installation • Undersized tank or leaching bed area Module 4:16

  17. Causes of Failing Systems • High groundwater table • Broken piping and compacted soils • Distribution box or header is off level • Faulty pumps Module 4:17

  18. Causes of Failing Systems Poor maintenance: • Compacted soils and cracked pipes • Poisoning of bacteria by chemicals • Saturated leaching bed Module 4:18

  19. How Do You KnowIf You Have a Problem? • Lush patches of grass • Soft & spongy ground • Pools of dark water • Toilets & drains gurgling or backing up • Odours Module 4:19

  20. The Dangers 1. Bacterial contamination of drinking water Bacterial contamination of drinking water Module 4:20

  21. The Dangers 2. Nutrient loading 3. Costly repairs and replacement Module 4:21

  22. Proper Maintenance • Regular pump-outs • Regular inspections • Protect the leaching bed • Control your inputs Module 4:22

  23. 1. Regular Pump-outs Every 2-5 years (Depending on system size and load) Module 4:23

  24. 2. Regular Inspections • Be present for pumping • Check scum and sludge depth • Look for cracks • Check seal on tank lids • Listen for water • Check interior of tank Module 4:24 DO NOT ENTER THE TANK AT ANY TIME

  25. 3. Protect the Leaching Bed • Avoid compacting soils • Avoid damaging pipes • Avoid saturating leaching bed • Avoid planting trees near bed Module 4:25

  26. 4. Control Your Inputs • Conserve water • Reduce chemical use • Reduce solid waste Module 4:26

  27. Unfriendly Items • 2-3 ply toilet tissue or facial tissue • Hair, dental floss, medicines • Kitchen scraps (eg. fats, oils or greases) • Chemical cleaners (eg. toilet sanitizers) • Paints or solvents (eg. nail polish remover) • Antifreeze, gas, motor oil • Cigarette butts Module 4:27

  28. Additives • Starters • Feeders • Cleaners Look for an Environmental Choice Program seal of approval or better yet… Save your money! Module 4:28

  29. Take Action • Know your system • Where it is and how it works • Be alert to changes • Prevent problems before they start • Regular pump-outs and inspections • Protect your leaching bed • Control what goes into your system • Research, learn & share information Module 4:29

  30. Sources of Information www.orwc.uoguelph.ca www.oowa.org Module 4:30

  31. Alternative On-Site Technologies • In use in Ontario since the 1970s • Include secondary and tertiary treatment units as well as other technology Module 4:31

  32. Favourable Site Conditions For Alternative Technology • Cottages to full-time residences • Proximity to lakes and rivers • Shallow bedrock & high groundwater table • Clay soils • Sloped sites • Large concentration of houses on private services Module 4:32

  33. Norweco Unit Discharging to a Shallow Buried Trench Bed Module 4:33

  34. Shallow Buried Trench Disposal Field Module 4:34

  35. Clearstream Unit Discharging to an Area Bed Module 4:35

  36. Waterloo Biofilter Installation: In-ground Module 4:36

  37. Waterloo Biofilter Installation- Above Ground Module 4:37

  38. Ecoflo Biofilter Treatment System Module 4:38

  39. Ecoflo Distribution System Module 4:39

  40. Various Ecoflo Installations Module 4:40

  41. Improving PerformanceAerobic Treatment Units Module 4:41

  42. The Wastewater Garden • Treats all household wastewater (black + grey) • Treats wastewater using water-loving plants • Water removed by evapotranspiration) • Zero discharge = no release of nutrients or pathogens Module 4:42

  43. Composting Toilet Photo courtesy of: BioLet Composting Toilets Module 4:43