“Age” Effects on Second Language Acquisition. Examination of 4 hypotheses related to age and language learning. http:// jimflege.com /files/Flege_MacKay_2010.pdf. Age and language learning stereotypes:
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Examination of 4 hypotheses related to age and language learning
What does research say about the effects of age on the overall success of learning an L2?Introduction: Is earlier better?
H1 states that internal changes that occur as humans mature render less effective mechanisms that promote language acquisition
HOWEVER- less than 1/2 of the Italians and only 1/4 of the Koreans with an AOA of less than 10 years were found to be “accent free”
Another problem for H1: generation of a prediction that has been falsified in studies
L2 learning becomes gradually less effective across the entire life span because cognitive abilities needed for speech and language learning diminish slowly across the life span
As the L1 system develops, the effect of cross-language phonetic interference becomes stronger because of differences in how the L1 and L2 sound systems interact
Flege (1991)- early Spanish learners of English produced “t” with native like values whereas late learners produced intermediate values to those of an English Monolingual able to create a new category sound for “t”