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THE HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TRANSPORTATION BY SEA AND THE RIGHT OF INNOCENT PASSAGE: Deficiencies - Deadlocks of the Existing Framework In Ensuring Coastal States and Freedom of Navigation. Ass. Professor Georgios Samiotis Mr. Dimitrios Grekos. Overview of Presentation.

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Presentation Transcript
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THE HAZARDOUS MATERIALSTRANSPORTATION

BY SEA AND THE RIGHT OF INNOCENT PASSAGE: Deficiencies - Deadlocks of the Existing Framework In Ensuring Coastal States and Freedom of Navigation

Ass. Professor GeorgiosSamiotis

Mr. DimitriosGrekos

overview of presentation
Overview of Presentation
  • The Conflict between Coastal and Maritime States on Hazardous Materials Transportation by Sea
  • Hazardous Materials (Hazmats)
  • Regulatory Framework for Hazmats Transportation by Ships
  • Maritime States and The Right of Innocent Passage
  • Coastal States and the Right of Innocent Passage
  • Coastal States and the Right of Prior Notification
  • Marine Environment Protection
  • Recommendations
conflict between coastal and maritime states on hazmats transportation by sea
Conflict between Coastal and Maritime States on Hazmats Transportation by Sea
  • Coastal States argue:

- Environmental Impact of Hazmats Transportation through their Territorial Sea in Case of Accident

- Sovereignty within their Territorial Sea

  • Maritime States argue:

- Uninterrupted Sea Transportation of Hazmats according to the Right of Innocent Passage

- Freedom of Navigation

  • Differing Opinions lie in the Provisions of International Law concerning the Rights and Obligations of States but also the Protection of Marine Environment
hazardous materials hazmats
Hazardous Materials (Hazmats)
  • A hazardous material (Hazmat) is “any item or agent (biological, chemical, physical) which has the potential to cause harm to humans, animals, or the environment, either by itself or through interaction with other factors” (Institute of Hazardous Materials Management, 2013)
  • In particular, hazmats transported by ships may become dangerous goods and are classified in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code or in any other IMO Regulation referred to “as dangerous for carriage by sea”
maritime states and the right of innocent passage
Maritime States and The Right of Innocent Passage
  • The right of innocent passage, through the territorial sea of the coastal State, is in favour of freedom of navigation. Ships under foreign flag may pass through the territorial sea of the coastal State under the provisions of article 19 (Meaning ofInnocent Passage) UNCLOS 1982.
  • The right of innocent passage is not limited by the flag, cargo or ship type. All ships indiscriminately are allowed to travel through the territorial sea of all states. The hazmats transportation by ships through the territorial sea of a coastal State is not shown in article 19. Therefore, this passage should be allowed.
coastal states and the right of innocent passage
Coastal States and The Right of Innocent Passage
  • Coastal State has legislative and executive jurisdiction within its territorial sea and may adopt legislative framework in line with Article 21 (Laws and regulations of the coastal State relating to innocent passage) UNCLOS 1982.
  • Article 220 (2) (Enforcement by coastal States) UNCLOS 1982 is a special rule where coastal State may detain a ship responsible for pollution in its territorial sea. Under this article the coastal State may take measures in case ships carry hazmats even when the ships exercise the right of innocent passage.
coastal states and the right of prior notification
Coastal States and The Right of Prior Notification

Source: (Hakapääand Molenaar, 1999)

marine environment protection
Marine Environment Protection
  • Coastal States indicate that ships carrying hazmats are a threat to the safety of the seas and the coastal environment because of the extremely dangerous nature of such loads, and therefore these ships should not deserve the right of innocent passage.
  • Coastal States have the obligation to protect the marine environment under Article 94 (Duties of the flag State) UNCLOS 1982 under which they should take all necessary measures to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment.
recommendations
Recommendations
  • Regional Agreements to set standards for the transport of hazmats by ships
  • Sea lanes determination could help to resolve the conflict between the States and the obligation to protect the marine environment
  • INF Code Amendments
  • Self – Regulation
  • - The Pigovian Taxes
  • - Coasian bargains
recommendations cont
Recommendations (cont.)
  • Application of the appropriate economic, social and environmental policies based on shipping business practices and provisions of UNCLOS 1982.
  • To encourage sustainable development of coastal areas and ensure the environmental public goods.
  • Shipping Stakeholders opinion matters…
  • Communication between Coastal and Maritime States at international level out of UNCLOS forum can benefit the problem solving.
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Thank You

Thank you for your Attention

samiotis@unipi.gr

jgrekos@gmail.com