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Reinforcement Learning applied to Meta -scheduling in grid environments Bernardo Costa Inês Dutra

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ISPA 2008 APDCT Workshop

Reinforcement Learning applied to Meta-scheduling in grid environments

Bernardo Costa

Inês Dutra

Marta Mattoso

ISPA 2008 APDCT Workshop

- Introduction
- Algorithms
- Experiments
- Conclusions and Future work

ISPA 2008 APDCT WorkshopIntroduction

- Relevance:
- Available grid schedulers usually do not employ a strategy that may benefit a single or multiple users.
- Some strategies employ performance information dependent algorithms (pida).
- Most works are simulated.
- Difficulty: monitoring information not reliable due to network latency.

ISPA 2008 APDCT Workshop

- Introduction
- Algorithms
- Experiments
- Conclusions and Future work

ISPA 2008 APDCT WorkshopStudy of 2 Algorithms

- (AG) A. Galstyan, K. Czajkowski, and K. Lerman. Resource allocation in the grid using reinforcement learning. In AAMAS, pages 1314–1315. IEEE, 2004.
- (MQD) Y. C. Lee and A. Y. Zomaya. A grid scheduling algorithm for bag-of-tasks applications using multiple queues with duplication. 5th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Computer and Information Science and 1st IEEE/ACIS International Workshop on Component-Based Software Engineering, Software Architecture and Reuse. ICIS-COMSAR, pages 5–10, 2006.

ISPA 2008 APDCT WorkshopWhat is reinforcement learning?

- Machine learning technique used to learn behaviours given a series of temporal events.
- Non-supervised learning.
- Based on the idea of rewards and punishments.

ISPA 2008 APDCT WorkshopAlgorithms

- AG and MQD use reinforcement learning to associate an efficiency rank to an RMS.
- Reinforcement learning native to AG.
- MQD was modified to use this technique to estimate computational power of an RMS.
- AG allocates RMS in a greedy and probabilistic way.
- MQD allocates RMS associatively and deterministically.

ISPA 2008 APDCT WorkshopAlgorithms

- Calculating efficiency:
- Reward is assigned to RMS that has performance better than average.
- Reward can be negative (punishment).
- RMS may not change its efficiency value.

ISPA 2008 APDCT WorkshopAlgorithms

- Calculating efficiency:
- parameters: a and l
- a is the importance of the time spent executing a task
- affects rewarding.
- l is a learning parameter

ISPA 2008 APDCT WorkshopAlgorithms

- AG:
- With high prob, associates job to the best available RMS, otherwise, selects randomly.
- MQD:
- Groups of jobs sorted according execution time are associated to an RMS. Most efficient executes the heaviest jobs. Initial allocation to estimate RMS´ efficiency

ISPA 2008 APDCT Workshop

- Introduction
- Algorithms
- Experiments
- Conclusions and Future work

ISPA 2008 APDCT WorkshopExperiments

- GridbusBroker:
- No need to install it in other grid sites
- Only requirement: ssh access to a grid node
- Round-robin scheduler (RR)
- Limitations:
- Does not support job duplication
- Imposes a limit on the number of active jobs per RMS

ISPA 2008 APDCT WorkshopExperiments

- Resources in 6 grid sites:
- LabIA: 24 (Torque/Maui)
- LCP: 28 (SGE)
- Nacad: 16 (PBS PRO)
- UERJ: 144 (Condor)
- UFRGS: 4 (Torque)
- LCC: 44 (Torque)

ISPA 2008 APDCT WorkshopExperiments

- Objective: study performance of algorithms in a real grid environment.
- Application: bag-of-tasks.
- CPU intensive.
- Duration between 3 and 8 minutes.

ISPA 2008 APDCT WorkshopExperiments

- Evaluation criteria:
- makespan.
- Makespan was normalized with respect to RR

ISPA 2008 APDCT WorkshopExperiments

- Phase I:
- Tuning of parameters a and l
- 500 jobs.
- Phase II:
- Performance of re-scheduling.
- Later load increased to 1000 jobs.

ISPA 2008 APDCT WorkshopExperiments

- One experiment is a run of consecutive executions of RR, AG and MQD.
- A scenario is a set of experiments with fixed parameters.
- For each scenario: 15 runs.
- T-tests to verify statistical difference beteween AG/MQD e RR, with 95% confidence (the results have a normal distribution).

ISPA 2008 APDCT Workshop

- Introduction
- Algorithms
- Experiments
- Conclusions and Future work

ISPA 2008 APDCT WorkshopConclusions and Future work

- Results showed that was possible to achieve optimizations with both AG and MQD wrt RR
- Experiments validate MQD simulation results found in the literature.
- Reinforcement learning is a promising technique to classify resources in real grid environments.

ISPA 2008 APDCT WorkshopConclusions and Future work

- Study the behavior of AG and MQD with other kinds of applications, e.g., data intensive, with dependencies.

ISPA 2008 APDCT WorkshopDefinições

- Gerenciador de recursos: sistema que gerencia a submissão e execução de jobs dentro de um domínio específico.
- Resource Management System (RMS): sinônimo para gerenciador de recursos.
- Batch job scheduler: escalonador típico de um RMS. Ex: SGE, PBS/Torque.

ISPA 2008 APDCT WorkshopDefinições

- Meta-escalonador: um escalonador que não tem acesso direto aos recursos, mas apenas aos RMS que os gerenciam.
- Aprendizado por reforço: técnica que induz um agente a tomar decisões por meio de recompensas oferecidas.
- Makespan: tempo total gasto por um meta-escalonador para finalizar a execução de um conjunto de jobs a ele designado.

ISPA 2008 APDCT WorkshopDefinições

- Job: aplicativo submetido ao grid por um usuário, executado em geral por um RMS. Exemplos de tipos de jobs:
- Bag-of-Tasks: jobs que não possuem relação de dependência ou precedência explícita entre si.
- Troca de parâmetros (APST): jobs de um mesmo executável que diferenciam-se por um valor de entrada que varia entre as execuções.

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