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SECTION 6. Perception. 2. Perception. Explaining perception Perceptual problems after stroke Strategies for helping the survivor with perceptual problems. 3. Key point. Practice and repeating activities can improve perceptual abilities. 4. Explaining perception.

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SECTION 6

Perception

perception
Perception
  • Explaining perception
  • Perceptual problems after stroke
  • Strategies for helping the survivor with perceptual problems

3

key point
Key point

Practice and repeating activities can improve perceptual abilities.

4

explaining perception
Explaining perception

Perception is how we process and interpret information from our senses:

  • vision
  • hearing
  • touch
  • taste
  • smell

5

perceptual problems after stroke
Perceptual problems after stroke
  • Time awareness
  • Spatial relations
  • Visual neglect
  • Unilateral body neglect
  • Apraxia
  • Perseveration
  • Vision problems

6

time awareness
Time awareness

How we see time passing

After a stroke - the survivor’s understanding of how time passes may change

How you can help:

  • Link events to other events, not to specific times
  • Review the daily schedule with the survivor
  • Maintain a consistent schedule
  • Reassure the survivor who is anxious
  • Listen to the survivor, but let the person know the reality
  • Use a digital clock or talking clock

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spatial relations
Spatial relations

How objects relate to each other and how we relate to objects in the environment.

After a stroke: Problems with spatial relations can include:

  • Misjudging the height of steps
  • Pushing towards the affected side during transfers
  • Knocking items over
  • Missing the chair when sitting down
  • Tripping over rugs, steps, uneven areas

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spatial relations1
Spatial relations

How you can help:

  • Talk with your team about the best strategy or assistive devices to use
  • Encourage the survivor to practice and repeat actions
  • Make the environment as safe as possible. For example, get rid of clutter

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visual neglect
Visual neglect

Decreased awareness of the body and environment on the side affected.

How you can help:

  • Arrange the environment to provide stimulation on the stroke-affected side
  • Approach the survivor from the unaffected side Then, move to the affected side
  • Use visual cues to assist the survivor
  • Encourage the survivor to scan the environment using the Lighthouse Strategy

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unilateral body neglect
Unilateral body neglect

Decreased awareness or failure to attend to the affected side of the body. The survivor of a right brain stroke may ignore the left half of their body

How you can help:

  • Talk with the team about using the affected arm or leg in daily activities
  • Position the affected arm so the survivor can see it
  • Gently rub the affected arm
  • Encourage survivor to help position the affected limb
  • Use cues to draw attention to the affected side

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apraxia
Apraxia

Difficulty in making purposeful movements, even though the survivor has the physical ability and understanding to perform the task. This happens because messages from the brain to the muscles are not being processed properly.

It can affect:

  • how the movement is planned for both sides of the body, not just the affected side.
  • the survivor’s ability to speak.

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apraxia1
Apraxia

How you can help:

  • Talk with the team about the best strategy or assistive devices to use
  • Use short and simple instructions
  • Break the task into simple steps
  • Encourage repetition and practice of activities
  • Provide hand-over-hand guidance

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perseveration
Perseveration

The uncontrollable repetition of a word, phrase, or action. When this happens, the person cannot move on to the next activity/thought. The survivor may seem to get “stuck”.

How you can help:

  • Plan the task with the survivor
  • Use clear, step-by-step instructions
  • Give survivor time to practice sequences
  • Help survivor stop if thy get “stuck”
  • Assist in starting the next step
  • Provide hand-over-hand guidance

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vision problems
Vision problems

Double vision

Blurred vision

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vision problems1
Vision problems

How you can help:

  • Talk with the team about the best strategies for dealing with a specific vision problem
  • Encourage the survivor to use the techniques
  • These techniques might include:
      • The Lighthouse Strategy
      • Visual cues
      • Reference points or anchors

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vision problems2
Vision problems

Visual field loss

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vision problems3
Vision problems

How you can help:

  • Encourage the survivor to turn their head to the affected side
  • Place items on the affected side
  • Encourage the use of an eye patch or prism glasses, if prescribed

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upon reflection
Upon reflection
  • What are three strategies you can use for someone who has unilateral body neglect?
  • Think of someone you have cared for who had problems with spatial relations. How did you help that person stay safe?

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