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## Event Detection

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**INTRODUCTION**• Wireless sensor networks are composed of sensor nodes that must cooperate in performingspecific functions. • In particular, with the ability of nodes to sense, process data, and communicate, they are well suited to perform event detection • The distributed, or decentralized, detection of wireless sensor networks has been studied quiteextensively since the late 1980s [1–11].**INTRODUCTION**• For a wireless sensor network performing a distributed detection function, most of the previous work has focused on developing the optimal decision rules or investigating the statistical properties for different scenarios. • For example, the structure of an optimal sensor configuration was studied for the scenario where the sensor network is constrained by the capacity of the wireless channel over which the sensors are transmitting [1] • The performance of a parallel distributed detection system was investigated where the number of sensors is assumed to tend to infinity [3].**INTRODUCTION**• Optimum distributed detection system design has been studied [4] for cases with statistically dependent observations from sensor to sensor • Another study [7] focused on a wireless sensor network with a large number of sensors based on a specific signal attenuation model, and investigated the problem of designing an optimum local decision rule • Shi et al. [10] and Zhang et al. [11] have studied the problem of binary hypothesis testing using binary decisions from independent and identically distributed sensors and developed the optimal fusion rules.**INTRODUCTION**• On the other hand, energy efficiency has always been a key issue for sensor networks as sensor nodes must rely on small, nonrenewable batteries. • Raghunathan et al. [12] summarize several energy optimization and management techniques at different levels, in order to enhance the energy awareness of wireless sensor networks. • Meanwhile a lot of related work has been done to improve the energy efficiency of sensor networks [13–17], but focusing mostly on clustering mechanisms [13,14], routing algorithms [16], energy dissipation schemes [14,17], sleeping schedules [15], and so on, where energy is usually traded for detection latency [15,16], network density [15,16], or computation complexity [14,17].**INTRODUCTION**• However, the energy concern in the detection problem of wireless sensor networks has not been adequately explored. • Additionally, in a detection system the wireless sensor networks have to be robust in resisting various kinds of attack. • Robustness therefore is another key issue for the wireless sensor networks from the viewpoint of security. • In this chapter we investigate the three important issues, detection, energy, and robustness, in the detection scenario of wireless sensor networks. • Specifically, we demonstrate a tradeoff between detection accuracy and energy consumption.**INTRODUCTION**• In a distributed detection process, sensor nodes are deployed randomly in the field and are responsible for collecting data from the surrounding environment. • The observed data are processed locally if needed before they are transmitted to a control center with some routing scheme. • A final decision is made at the control center on the basis of all the data sent from the sensor nodes. • Various options for data processing are possible and result in different patterns of data transmission. • Maniezzo et al. [17] investigated how energy consumption is affected by the tradeoff between local processing and data transmission.**INTRODUCTION**• Maniezzo et al. [17] investigated how energy consumption is affected by the tradeoff between local processing and data transmission. • Also, it is clear that detection accuracy depends on the aggregated information contained in the data available to the control center. • Therefore a connection between detection and energy can be established naturally through balancing local processing and data transmission. • Energy efficiency is traded for detection performance in this way.**INTRODUCTION**• For a wireless sensor network performing a detection function, the observation data are usually spatially correlated across nodes [4] and temporally correlated at each single node. • A routing scheme is necessary for data transmission from sensor nodes to the control center due to the limited power of nodes as well as the unexpected complexity of the hostile terrain [13,14,16]. • Noise also needs to be considered as it may interfere with the data transmission, and the Gaussian noise case has also been studied [4,10]. • However, as the first step in this direction, we attempt to obtain a beginning and basic result. Therefore we investigate a simplified wireless sensor network model where the abovementioned considerations are disregarded.**INTRODUCTION**• Thus, we assume that each node independently observes, processes data, and transmits the processed data directly to the control center, in an error-free communication channel. • The observations at each node and across nodes are independently and identically distributed (i.i.d.) conditioned on a certain hypothesis. • Furthermore we start from the special case of binary hypothesis testing. By ignoring the spatial and temporal correlations, the routing issue, and so on, we simplify the problem to a basic level where the detection scheme would become simple and straightforward, and the detection accuracy as well as energy consumption can be computed by closed-form expressions. However, we should be aware that the simplified modelis faraway from the realistic world; thus we plan to develop the model with more complicated considerations and investigate the new scenarios in future work.**INTRODUCTION**• On the basis of the simplified wireless sensor network model, we propose three operating options with different schemes for local processing and data transmission, known as the centralized option, the distributed option, and the quantized option. • To be specific, the centralized option transmits all the information contained in the observed data to the control center, which results in a simple binary hypothesis testing problem. The optimal solution is given by the maximum a posteriori detector [18]. • On the other hand, for the distributed option each sensor node makes its own decision by a local decision rule. • The one-bit decisions are transmitted to the control center, where a final decision is made.**INTRODUCTION**• The quantized option does some local processing at sensor nodes and transmits the resulted data to the control center, which contains partial information of the original observed data. • For the distributed option and the quantized option, the global optimal detection schemes can always be obtained by exhaustive search, although it is not practical because of computation complexity. • Therefore we adopt the identical local detector because of its asymptotic optimality [1,3]. • Thus we develop the desired decision rule for each operating option where tremendous computations are avoided.**INTRODUCTION**• Having developed the decision rules, we focus on the detection mission. • We compare the detection performance of each option for different values of system parameters. • Then we establish an energy consumption model, where energy is assumed to be charged for data processing and data transmission, as introduced by Maniezzo et al. [17]. • For our simplified wireless sensor network model, we assume sensor nodes to be homogeneous [13] in that they all adopt the identical detectors and communication systems. Meanwhile as the routing components are disregarded, the data transmission occurs only between sensor nodes and the control center.**INTRODUCTION**• Therefore the energy consumption would depend only on the number of data processing operations and the number of bits in transmission, given all the other system parameters as fixed. • We evaluate the ‘‘detection versus energy’’ performance by varying the values of system parameters for each operating option. • Generally, detection accuracy is improved when more energy is consumed. However, the three options have different performances regarding the tradeoff between detection and energy, depending on the system parameters.**INTRODUCTION**• Finally we discuss the robustness issue of the wireless sensor networks. • Specifically, we consider two forms of attack of node destruction and observation deletion for each operating option. • For the observation deletion attack, the number of observations to each sensor node is not necessarily identical as before. Therefore the optimal decision rule of each option is reconsidered and modified. • The comparison shows that the distributed option is the most robust option against both types of attack while the centralized option is the weakest one.**MODEL DESCRIPTION**• A typical wireless sensor network consists of a number of sensor nodes and a control center. • To perform a detection function, each sensor node collects observation data from the surrounding environment, does some processing locally if needed, and then routes the processed data to the control center. • The control center is responsible for making a final decision based on all the data it receives from the sensor nodes.**Simplified Wireless Sensor Network Model**• For a wireless sensor network to perform a detection function, routing usually is needed to transmit data from faraway nodes to the control center; spatial and temporal correlations exist among measurements across or at sensor nodes; and noise interference must be considered as well. • However, to focus our attention on the key issues of detection and energy, we start with a simple model where such considerations are disregarded. • Our assumptions for the simplified wireless sensor network model include:**Simplified Wireless Sensor Network Model**• No cooperations among sensor nodes — each sensor node independently observes, processes, and transmits data. • No spatial or temporal correlation among measurements — observations are independent across sensor nodes, and at each single node. • No routing — each sensor node sends data directly to the control center. • No noise or any other interference — data are transmitted over an error-free communication channel.**Three Operating Options**1. Centralized Option. At each sensor node, the observation data are transmitted to the control center without any loss of information. The control center bases its final decision on the comprehensive collection of information.**Three Operating Options**• 3. Quantized Option. Instead of sending all the information or sending a one-bit decision, each sensor node processes the observation data locally and sends a quantized M-bit quantity (qi for Si, qi {0, 1, . . . , 2M- 1}, 1 M T) to the control center, and the control center makes the final decision based on the basis of the k quantized quantities {q1; q2; . . . ; qk}.**Analysis – Distributed Option**• For the distributed option we consider the local decision rule at the sensor nodes and the final decision rule at the control center, respectively. 1. Local Decision Rule. As we have specified before, each sensor node applies a local decision rule to make a binary decision based on the T observations. • A question yields naturally whether we should have an identical local decision rule for all the sensor nodes. • Generally, an identical local decision rule does not result in an optimum system from a global point of view. However, it is still a suboptimal scheme if not the optimal one, which has been observed by some previous work. • Irving and Tsitsiklis [9] showed that for the binary hypothesis detection, no optimality is lost with identical local detectors in a two-sensor system • Chen and Papamarcou [3] showed that identical local detectors are asymptotically optimum when the number of sensors tends to infinity.**Analysis – Distributed Option**• We assume that each sensor node does not have any information about other nodes, which means that the identical local decision rule would depend only on {T, p, p0, p1}, while the number of sensor nodes K is considered as global information and not available for decision making of sensor nodes. • Eventually the problem is simplified to a similar case for the centralized option, where the only difference is the number of observations changes from KT to T.**Analysis – Quantized Option**• For the quantized option, we develop the optimal quantization algorithm as well as the suboptimal quantization algorithm for different application scenarios.**Analysis – Quantized Option**• The optimal quantization algorithm can be obtained by exhaustive search. • Specifically, we compute and then compare the probability of error with the optimal decision rule applied at the control center for each possible quantization algorithm that is applied at the sensor nodes; the one producing the minimal probability of error is the desired optimal quantization algorithm. • However, the exhaustive search is not practical because the computation complexity would be too high for large K and T. Hence we develop the suboptimal quantization algorithm to somehow reduce the computation burden by avoiding the nonscalable computations.**Analysis – Quantized Option**2. Suboptimal Quantization Algorithm. The suboptimal quantization algorithm is inspired by the observed properties of the optimal quantization algorithm that was performed on selected examples for small values of K and T. It**Comparisons**• We evaluate the detection performance of the three operating options in terms of Pf, Pd, and Pe. Here we adopt the optimal quantization algorithm for the quantized option. We fix K=4, M=2, p =0.5, p0=0.2, and p1=0.7 and vary T from 3 to 10. Figures 6.3–6.5 show Pf , Pd, and Pe versus T for three options. • As we see in general, the centralized option has the best detection performance in the sense that it achieves the highest Pd and lowest Pf and Pe, while the distributed option has the worst performance. • This is consistent with our expectation since the centralized option has a complete information of the observation data at the control center, while the distributed option has the least information at the control center.**Robustness**• Attack 1: Node Destruction • Attack 2: Observation Deletion**Robustness**• Attack 1: Node Destruction**Robustness**• Attack 1: Node Destruction**Robustness**• Attack 2: Observation Deletion • Suppose that the wireless sensor network is under attack in that observations are partially deleted. • Thus the number of observations at each sensor node is not necessarily identical as before. • We assume after attack T =[T(1), T(2), . . . , T(K)], where T(i) represents the number of observations to Si.**Robustness**• Attack 2: Observation Deletion