Civilizations of the Andes Chavίn Moche Wari and Tiwanaku
Civilizations of the Andes • What do we know about the geography?
Geography and Food • The deserts only supported human habitation because of rivers… • Rivers provided irrigation and cultivation • Location near the Pacific Ocean • Birds and Fish • Seafood from the coastal region; cotton from lower-altitude valley; potatoes, quinoa, and pasture land for llamas in the high plains; tropical fruit and coca from the eastern slope
Civilizations of South America • First Wave Civilization= Notre Chico:3000 BCE • Second Wave Civilizations: • Chavin: 1200 BCE- 200 BCE • Moche: 200 BCE-800 CE – flourished 100 CE- 700 CE • Nazca: ?- 600 CE • Wari: 400 CE- 1000 CE • Tiwanaku: 400 CE- 1000 CE • Huari: 650 CE0 800 CE • Chimu: 600 CE- 1470 CE • Inca: 1476 CE- 1543 CE
Chavίn (cha-BEEN) • 900 BCE – 200 BCE: became the center of a religious movement – Chavίn de Huántar • Location – coastal and highland Peru • Strategic location to trade routes • Why would trade routes be so important to Chavίn?
Chavίn (cha-BEEN) • Architecture – the Elite class • Elaborate temple complex – galleries, hidden passageways, staircases, ventilation, drainage canals (technology) • Artwork – influenced from both the desert coastal regions and the rainforests – major deities represented as jaguars, crocodiles, and snakes (art and religion) • Shamans – San Pedro cactus – hallucinogenic properties – used to communicate with the supernatural world
Chavίn (cha-BEEN) • Spread of religion across Peru and beyond – how do we know? Architecture, sculpture, pottery, religious images – imitated within the region • Chavίn became pilgrimage cite and training center • No “empire” emerged – it was a widespread religious cult based on a trading network
Chavίn (review) • N. Peru • Farming society • Different regional groups • Main town was probably a pilgrimage site
Moche (MOH-chee) • 100 CE – 800 CE • Location – Peru’s northern coast – incorporated 13 river valleys • Economy dependent on irrigation systems – constant maintenance – channeled snow runoff from the Andes • Grew – maize, beans, squash – used water and guano • Fishermen – anchovies in the Pacific
Moche (MOH-chee) • Politically – governed by warrior-priests • Lived in pyramids – largest had 143 million sundried bricks • Shaman-rulers – often under the influence of hallucinogenic drugs – conducted rituals and mediated between the humankind and the gods • Ritual Sacrifice of human victims – most prisoners of war – this was the central concept to the politico-religious life • Decapitation and dismemberment was represent on pottery
Moche (MOH-chee) • Moche was based on war, ceremony and diplomacy • Wealth of the warrior-priest elite – elaborate burials of the rulers • Lord of Sipan • Craftspeople – metal workers, potters, weavers, painters, farmers, fishermen, traders, construction workers – little is known about the daily life of these workers
Moche Review • 200 BCE- 700 CE • Northern Peru • 2000 separate settlements • Created irrigation systems • Royal tombs show social classes • Lord, buried in shrouds and covered in jewels • Surrounded by servants and animals • Llamas, a dog, and a snake • Paintings show priests in warfare and performing human sacrifices on the prisoners • Moche left around 600 CE and no one knows why
Wari and Tiwanaku • 400 CE – 1000 CE • Interior empires • Wari – northern highlands of the Andes • Tiwanaku – southern part of the Andes • Both centered on large urban capitals, monumental architecture, and large populations • Both governments collected surplus food – incase of drought and famine • Neither controlled a continuous band of territory
Wari and Tiwanaku • Both developed vertical empires • Colonies at lower levels on the eastern and western slopes of the Andes • Food – seafood, maize, chili peppers, cocoa, hallucinogenic plants • Caravans of llama linked distant centers – allowed for trade
Wari VS Tiwanaku • Agriculture – • Wari = hillside terracing, snowmelt from Andes • Tiwanaku = “raised field” – elevated planting areas separated by small irrigation canals • Architecture - • Wari = tombs and temples were built of field stone • Tiwanaku = elaborate fitted stone walls and buildings • City organization – • Wari = built to a common plan, linked to capital by highways • Tiwanaku = not as tightly control compared to Wari
Wari VS Tiwanaku • Shared 300 mile border • Little conflict between the two, or interaction • Spoke own languages, different clothes, different gods • Capitals were the base of their civilizations • Following their collapse were a series of smaller Andean kingdoms – one which became the Inca Empire – used technology and architecture from the Wari and Tiwanaku. Inca claimed Tiwanaku as their origin. • Fall of American empires came with the invasions of the Europeans in the 1400’s
Discussion Questions: • What kind of influence did Chavin exert in the Andes region? • What features of Moche life characterize it as a civilization? • What was the significance of Wari and Tiwanaku in the history of the Andean Civilization?
Civilization • What classifies a civilization?