chapter 12 empires in east asia 660 1350 a d n.
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  1. Chapter 12Empires In East Asia 660-1350 A.D.

  2. Vocabulary: Part I Moveable Type: Blocks of metal or wood, each bearing a single character, that can be arranged for page printing Gentry: A class of powerful, well-to-do people who enjoy a high social class/status Acupuncture: Chinese form of medicine. Needles in body to relive stress/pain (Chinese Anatomy) Clan: Group of people descended from a common ancestor Genghis Khan: United Mongols. Created largest empire in the world Pax Mongolica: The “Mongol Peace.” A period from 1250-1350 A.D. when the Mongols imposed stability, law and order across much of Eurasia

  3. Vocabulary: Part II Kublai Khan: Grandson of Genghis Khan. Goal was to rule/conquer all of China. Tried to conquer Japan multiple times. Marco Polo: Italian merchant/explorer. Served Kublai Khan for 17 years. Opened Europe to the greatness of China Shinto: Native Religion of Japan (Nature Based) Samurai: One of the professional warriors who served Japanese feudal lords Bushido: The strict code of behavior followed by samurai warriors in Japan Shogun: In feudal Japan, a supreme military commander who ruled in the name of the Emperor

  4. Vocabulary: Part III Khmer Empire: A southeast Asian empire, centered in what is now Cambodia, that reached its peak of power around. Angkor Wat: A temple complex built during the Khmer Empire and dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu Koryu Dynasty: Dynasty that ruled Korea from 935-1392 A.D.

  5. Tang and Song China Chapter 12:1

  6. Two Great Dynasties in China • The Tang Dynasty Expands China • Tang Rulers Create a Powerful Empire • After collapse of Han Dynasty in 220 AD, it took until 589 AD for Chinese to restore a new dynasty • Tang Emperors lowered taxes and concentrated on foreign trade and agriculture for income • Built Roads/Canals • Conquered Northern lands • Influences Korea • Empress Wu Zhao (Only Women Empress)

  7. Tang Dynasty Map

  8. Empress Wu Zhao

  9. The Tang Dynasty • Scholar-Officials • Tang revived examination system (Civil Service) for choosing government officials • Giant Bureaucracy to rule empire • Tang Lose Power • Military expansion had wrecked economy by mid 700’s. • Taxes too high • Tang lost control of central Asia – Silk Road routes • Chinese rebels murdered the last Tang Emperor (Child)

  10. The Song Dynasty Restores China Song Taizu Founded Dynasty that lasted from 960-1279 The Song returned China to prosperity, but steadily lost lands to invading nomads 10 cities over 1 million people Expanded via “Sea Trade”

  11. Song Dynasty

  12. An Era of Prosperity and Innovation • Science and Technology • Innovations lead to the most advanced society in the world • Movable type and gunpowder were invented • Vietnamese Rice • Other inventions • Paper Money • Porcelain, • Mechanical Clock, • The Magnetic Compass

  13. Trade and Foreign Contacts • Trade and Foreign Contacts • Trade expanded over the ocean as the Silk Roads were lost to nomads • Chinese became greatest naval power in the world • Cultural Diffusion: Tea, new ideas in math and astronomy to China, Buddhism to Southeast Asia and Japan

  14. A Golden Age of Poetry and Art Tang and Song dynasties fostered artistic brilliance Li Bo and Tu Fu Topics: Life/Confucian Ideas/Battle Chinese Paintings: Nature/Black Ink

  15. Changes in Chinese Society • Levels of Society • The Gentry: Scholar-officials and their families, emerged as the ruling class in China • Laborers, soldiers, and peasants made up the lowest classes of society • Few control land

  16. The Status of Women The Status of Women Women raised to be subservient to men, especially in the upper classes Practice of foot-binding was started, crippled women for life Was considered a sign of prestige for men

  17. 12:2 The Mongol Conquests

  18. Nomads of the Asian Steppe • Vast dry grasslands (Steppe) • Trade routes/open lands • Central Asia to Eastern Europe • Home of the Hittites, Huns, Turks, Mongols • Dramatic Weather Changes • Better weather in the West (constant migration) • Nomads constantly fighting over lands • Importance of the Horse • Development of Clans vs. Kingdoms

  19. Empire of the Great Khan • The Mongol Empire • Temujin • Genghis Khan (Universal Ruler) • United all Mongol tribes by conquest in 1206 AD • Used organization and new battle tactics to defeat enemies • Fear convinced many people to surrender to Mongols

  20. Genghis Khan 1162-1227 “Man’s greatest fortune is to chase and defeat his enemy, seize his total possessions, leave his married women weeping and wailing, and ride his horse…”

  21. Genghis The Conqueror • Organized Military • Followed Chinese Military Organization based on armies of 10,000 • Silk Armor • Gifted Strategist • Set up traps on attacking armies • Skilled Horsemen • Cruelty • Terrifying enemy into surrender • Two Choices: Join or Die (Slaughter) • Won on Reputation of Cruelty

  22. Mongols as Rulers • Mongols destroyed much of the land that they conquered • 4 Khanates: Descendent Rulers • Khanate of the Great Khan (Mongolia and China) • Khanate of Chagatai (Central Asia) • Khanate of Ilkhanate (Persia) • Khanate of the Golden Horde (Russia) • Over time, they began to blend into society • From 1250 to 1350, Mongol Peace/ Pax Mongolica fostered trade and cultural diffusion throughout Asia • Consequence: The Bubonic Plague

  23. TsonjinBolog, Mongolia

  24. The Mongol Empire12:3

  25. Kublai Khan Conquers China • Kublai Khan, grandson to Genghis Khan • “Great Khan” • Beginning a New Dynasty • Yuan Dynasty unified China • The armies of Kublai Khan conquered China in 1279 • Kublai tolerated Chinese traditions and did not change government • Abandoned Mongol Life Style….. Enjoyed Luxuries • Moved Capital to China

  26. Failure to Conquer Japan • Kublai sent two invasions to conquer Japan (1274/1281) • Forced the Koreans to build, sail and provide supplies (Why?) • 150,000 (Largest Until WWII) • Typhoon swept across the Sea of Japan • Shipwrecked on Japanese rocky coastline • Kamikaze Wind “Divine Wind”

  27. Mongol Rule in China • The Mongols and the Chinese • Mongols lived apart from Chinese • Most important government posts went to Mongols or foreigners • Kublai built canals and roads that improved transportation in China • Extended the Grand Canal

  28. Marco Polo at the Mongol Court Kublai Khan invited visitors to stay with him Traveled to China in 1275 and stayed 17 years His writings were the first European records of China Encouraged later European interest and exploration of routes to China

  29. The End of Mongol Rule • Yuan Dynasty overthrown • Mongols suffered several military defeats, causing taxes to increase • Kublai’s successors were cruel towards the Chinese people • Dynasty overthrown in 1368 • By 1480, all lands the Mongols had once ruled became independent once again

  30. Feudal Powers In Japan Chapter 12:4

  31. The Growth of Japanese Civilization • Geography of Japan • Made up of about 4,000 islands • Four Main Islands – Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu • Very Mountainous, few natural resources • Relies on seafood • 12% of land is farmable • Natural Disasters: Typhoons and Earthquakes

  32. The Growth of Japanese Civilizations Early Japanese History Shinto Torii Gate • Family clans dominated Japanese culture • Worshiped nature gods and goddess • Shinto Religion Evolves • Shinto: meaning “way of the gods” • Respect for nature and ancestors • Kami: Divine spirits that dwelled in nature

  33. The Growth of Japanese Civilizations Yamato Emperors Yamato family ruled as emperors of Japan from the 5th century Most emperors lacked any real power Dual Structure of Government

  34. Japanese Culture • The Japanese Adopt Chinese Ideas • Buddhism in Japan • Combined traditional Chinese form with aspects of Shinto (Zen Buddhism) • Cultural Borrowing from China • In 600s, Japanese sent envoys to China to study ways of the Chinese • Writing, Cooking, Gardening, Drinking Tea and Hairdressing

  35. Feudalism Erodes Imperial Authority Decline of Central Power Samurai Warriors/Bushido • Landowners living away from the capital set up private armies • Small landowners looked to local lords for protection • Beginning of a “Feudal System” in Japan • Central government not interested in affairs outside of capital • Samurai bodyguards of loyal warriors “one who serves” • Bushido Code “the way of the warrior” • Reckless courage • Reverence for the gods • Fairness • Generosity toward weak • Dying an honorable death

  36. A Samurai's Life

  37. A Samurai's Life

  38. A Samurai's Life

  39. A Samurai's Life

  40. Seppuku Also called Hara-kiri (Belly Cutting) The honorable way of taking one’s own life Bring honor to dishonorable name Part of Bushido Code Plunge sword into left side of stomach and cut all the way over to the right

  41. Geisha

  42. The Kamakura Shogunate • Minamoto clans take control in 1192, leader takes title of Shogun, or supreme military ruler • Shogun ruled as military dictator, daimyo ruled each province • Emperor remained as puppet ruler

  43. Emperor Shogun Daimyo Samurai Peasants/Artisans Merchants

  44. Kingdom of Southeast Asia and Korea12:5

  45. Southeast Asia Southeast Asia Kingdoms of Southeast Asia Geography Myanmar (Burma) Laos Cambodia Vietnam Malaysia Indonesia, Thailand Singapore Brunei Philippines India and Pacific Oceans Indochina and the Islands Warm Humid Tropics Monsoon winds/Seasonal winds