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Evaluation Geological Engineering Basics GEOL 4233 Class Dan Boyd Oklahoma Geological Survey Fall 2011 Semester PowerPoint Presentation
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Evaluation Geological Engineering Basics GEOL 4233 Class Dan Boyd Oklahoma Geological Survey Fall 2011 Semester. Geological Engineering Overview Reservoir Issues Porosity Permeability Fluid Saturation Fluid / Pressure Terminology & Concepts Fluid (Water, Oil Gas)

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Evaluation

Geological Engineering Basics

GEOL 4233 Class

Dan Boyd

Oklahoma Geological Survey

Fall 2011 Semester

slide2

Geological Engineering Overview

  • Reservoir Issues
    • Porosity
    • Permeability
    • Fluid Saturation
  • Fluid / Pressure Terminology & Concepts
    • Fluid (Water, Oil Gas)
    • Pressure (Saturation, Mobility, Compressibility)
  • Drive Mechanisms
    • Oil
    • Gas
    • Multiphase Flow Issues (Coning)
  • Reservoir Management
    • General Principles
    • Production Curves
    • Improved Recovery
slide3

General Reservoir Issues

  • Porosity
  • Permeability
  • Fluid Saturations
slide4

Porosity

  • Storage Capacity
  • Nominal Pay Cutoffs
    • Oil: 10%
    • Gas: 8%
  • Porosity Types
    • Intergranular (clastics)
    • Intercrystaline (carbonates)
    • Fracture
    • Dissolution (moldic, vuggy, cavernous)
  • Logs
    • Density
    • Neutron
    • Sonic
slide7

Schematic Porosity vs. Depth Plot

(Hard Rock Country)

5,000’

15,000’

20,000’

10,000’

slide8

Permeability

  • Producibility
  • Kv – Kh (vertical vs. horizontal)
    • Conventional Reservoirs
    • Fractured Reservoirs
    • Unconventional Reservoirs
  • Relative Permeability
  • Enhanced Permeability
    • Acid Treatment
    • Fracture Stimulation
  • Logs
    • Spontaneous Potential (SP)
    • Resistivity Suite
slide14

Fluid Saturation

  • Water
    • Wetting (dewatering)
    • Connate
    • Irreducible (Swirr)
  • Oil
    • Water displacement (Soi)
    • Fractured Reservoirs
    • Unconventional Reservoirs
  • Gas
    • Molecular Size (mobility)
    • Water/Oil displacement (Sgi)
slide15

Schematic Reservoir Grain Size vs. Water Saturation

Grain Size (permeability)

Shale (Magnified)

Water Saturation

Initial (complete pore volume) – Irreducible (rims only)

slide16

Reservoir Sandstone

Good Porosity = Lots of Space for Petroleum

Pores

(blue)

slide19

Unconventional (Low-Perm)

Shale

(Organic-Rich)

1 Inch

slide22

Fluid Terminology

Water:

Connate

Movable vs. Irreducible

slide23

Schematic Reservoir Grain Size vs. Water Saturation

Grain Size (permeability)

Shale (Magnified)

Water Saturation

Initial (complete pore volume) – Irreducible (rims only)

slide24

Fluid Terminology

Water:

Connate

Movable vs. Irreducible

Salinity (ppm): Chlorides vs. T.D.S.

Fresh – Brackish – Normal Marine - Hypersaline

Secondary Recovery (Waterflood)

Compressibility (10x rule)

slide27

Fluid Terminology

Oil:

Gravity (API)

Viscosity (cp)

GOR (gas to oil ratio)

Saturated vs. Undersaturated (gas cap – secondary gas cap)

slide28

Fluid Terminology

Oil:

Gravity (API)

Viscosity (cp)

GOR (gas to oil ratio)

Saturated vs. Undersaturated (gas cap – secondary gas cap)

Contrast with Condensate

Live vs. Dead

Sweet vs. Sour

slide29

Fluid Terminology

Gas:

Heating Value

Condensate Yield

Condensate vs. Oil

Wet vs. Dry

Sweet vs. Sour

Other Components (CO2, N2)

slide30

Pressure Terminology

‘Normal’ Pressure (hydrostatic)

Under-pressure (fluid leak-off or storage volume increase)

Over-pressure (incomplete de-watering)

Measurements:

Reservoir Pressure (BHP, calculated vs. measured)

Flowing Tubing Pressure (FTP, at surface)

Casing Pressure (between casing and tubing)

slide35

Saturation Pressures

Oil : Bubble Point

Gas : Dew Point (retrograde – occurs in reservoir)

slide36

Fluid Mobility / Compressibility

  • Molecular Size Mobility Compressibility
  • Gas - Small High Very High
  • Oil - Large Medium Moderate (~GOR)
  • Water - Medium Low Low (10x Rule)
slide38

Oil Reservoir

  • Drive Mechanisms
  • Solution Gas Drive (dissolved gas) (also called depletion)
  • Gas Expansion Drive (gas cap)
  • Water Drive
  • Combination Drive
  • Gravity Drainage
slide44

Schematic Gravity Drainage

Shallow (Low Pressure)

slide46

Gas Reservoir Drive Mechanism

Dominantly Depletion

Gas

Gas / Water

Contact

slide52

Multi-Phase Flow Issues

Gas

Oil

Water

American Petroleum Institute, 1986

slide53

N

0

200

400

600

800

1000 M.

“ D 6 “ HORIZONTAL WELLBORE TRAJECTORIES

LOWER D6 ( S 36 )

STRUCTURE

NET SAND

B-92

-7100

0

B-98

B-54

B-69

B-46

10

B - 185 LATERAL

20

20

B-176

B - 184 LATERAL

30

50

B-94

40

B-99

-7150

-7150

10

20

S.L.

S.L.

0

30

30

40

40

50

20

B-181

10

B-56

0

-7200

slide54

MEASURED DEPTH

BADAK - 185 HORIZONTAL

SCHEMATIC WELLBORE STRATIGRAPHY

( VERTICAL EXAGGERATION = 20X )

PILOT HOLE

8400

7800

8000

8200

8600

8800

9000

9200

TVD SS

-7090’

S 33

-7100’

~ OIL RIM UPPER LIMIT IN PILOT

-7110’

-7120’

B-184 PILOT

GOC

-7130’

S 36

BEGIN O/W TRANSITION ZONE IN PILOT

INITIAL TARGET

DEPTH

50 % Sw IN PILOT

-7140’

-7150’

slide55

Badak-185 Horizontal Lateral

(Elan Plus Interpretation)

slide58

Reservoir Management

  • Preservation of Reservoir Energy (pressure)
    • Water into the bottom
    • Gas into the top
  • Long term gain for short term pain (production restraint)
slide60

Production

  • Primary
  • Secondary (Waterflood)
  • Tertiary (Enhanced)
slide70

Misener Oil Well

Cum: 670 MBO + 207 MMCF

Current Rate: 24 BOPD

Approximately 240 MMCF Vented

slide72

Improving Recovery

Secondary (Waterflood)

Enhanced (Tertiary)

slide73

Producing Wells

Secondary Recovery

Injection

Wells

Of 60% Remaining in Reservoir

Water

Gas

Steam

Chemical

Fire

Pumped into the reservoir to force additional petroleum out of the pores in the reservoir rock

slide75

Tecumseh NW Field Example of

Ideal Primary – Secondary Production Curve

slide76

Shawnee Lake SE Field

Secondary 2/3rds of total production

slide81

Next:

Volumetrics

(Bring a calculator and straight edge to class)