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SY3 -Understanding Power and Control. Understanding Crime Mrs Leigh Ashford. Objectives. Consider ways of controlling crime and deviance Consider your own perceptions of crime Consider some causes of crime. WHAT IS POWER?

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Sy3 understanding power and control

SY3 -Understanding Power and Control

Understanding Crime

Mrs Leigh Ashford


Objectives
Objectives

  • Consider ways of controlling crime and deviance

  • Consider your own perceptions of crime

  • Consider some causes of crime


Sy3 understanding power and control

WHAT IS POWER?

“an individual or group has power when they are able to get what they want despite opposition from other people”


Sy3 understanding power and control

Sources of power

Coercion which involves the use of force. People obey because they feel that they have no choice and that they are forced to obey against their will.

Authority is exercised over us when we willingly obey an individual or a group because we see it as the right thing to do. Force is not necessary because we agree to obey.



Social control formal or informal
Social Control – formal or informal?

  • The law

  • The media

  • Government policies i.e tax, welfare or education

  • Domestic violence

  • Role modelling

  • The police and armed forces

  • Socialisation

  • Patriarchy

  • False class consciousness

  • value consensus

  • Trade unions

  • Which form of control is the most effective?


Sy3 understanding power and control
Task

  • In groups of 3 brainstorm answers to questions in exercise 1 of your booklets. You have 5minutes!


Sy3 understanding power and control
Task

  • Now see if you can apply sociological perspectives to your answers

  • What are they ?


Who s the criminal
Who,s the criminal ?


2 perceptions of crime true false game do official crime statistics reflect our perceptions
2. Perceptions of Crime True/False game.Do Official Crime Statistics reflect our perceptions ?


Sy3 understanding power and control
Official crime rates in the UK are falling and surveys suggest that as a result people feel safer than they did 2 years ago


Young african caribbean males are more likely to be perpetrators of crime than victims
Young African-Caribbean males are more likely to be perpetrators of crime than victims




Sy3 understanding power and control

A middle-class white boy living in a rural community is more likely to receive only a caution for a first offence than a working-class black boy living in a city.


Women offenders are sometimes treated more harshly because of a perception that they are unfeminine
Women offenders are sometimes treated more harshly because of a perception that they are ‘unfeminine’




What causes crime

What causes crime ? than a male under 25 yrs.

A summary of types of theory


Biological theories
Biological theories than a male under 25 yrs.

  • Cesare Lombroso was the first of these thinkers.

  • They suggest that the physical make up of criminals is different from that of ‘normal’ people.

  • This then pre-disposes them to crime.

  • Some more recent gene mapping studies have shown certain genes may be linked to criminal behaviour – however this is not certain.


Social psychology
Social Psychology than a male under 25 yrs.

  • H J Eysenck was one of the best known.

  • They suggest that criminals are different in their mental structure in some way.

  • They commit crime because their social experiences have led to incorrect thinking.


Structural theories of crime
Structural theories of crime than a male under 25 yrs.

  • These suggest that the workings of society are at fault.

  • Laws and social structures create criminals.

  • Marxism sees capitalism as the main problem which leads to poverty and hence crime. However Functionalists see crime as a product of social consensus over what is right and wrong – crime is seen as good for society.


Labelling theories
Labelling theories than a male under 25 yrs.

  • These suggest that the reactions of people to those who are labelled as criminal is the problem.

  • It creates self-fulfilling and a hardening of the behaviour and does not allow people an escape route.

  • They define themselves as having a criminal identity.


Sub cultural theories of crime
Sub-cultural theories of crime than a male under 25 yrs.

  • Criminal behaviours arise through the creation of deviant norms and values within sub-cultures. Poor socialisation within families is identified as a major cause.

  • They form criminal groups with separate values and norms from those of mainstream society in order to attain the goals that they desire. E.g drug dealing to gain material wealth instead of qualifications and a job.


Postmodernism
Postmodernism than a male under 25 yrs.

  • These theories claim that other theories ignore the uniqueness of criminal acts.

  • It is pointless to try to explain crime with an overall theory since every action is unique and individuals are unique.

  • The main theories are out of date in today’s society. New technology such as CCTV and the internet has led to different solutions and forms of crime.


Activity and discussion
Activity and discussion than a male under 25 yrs.

  • One early sociology text, Jack Nobbs’ Modern Society suggested some of the following as causes of delinquency and delinquent behaviour.

  • Where do these following suggestions fit into the previous categories described?



Sense of injustice at an unequal society
Sense of injustice at an unequal society than a male under 25 yrs.


Being misunderstood at school
Being misunderstood at school than a male under 25 yrs.


Weak parental discipline
Weak parental discipline than a male under 25 yrs.


Neglected upbringing
Neglected upbringing than a male under 25 yrs.


Mental and physical inadequacy
Mental and physical inadequacy than a male under 25 yrs.


Spoiling of children
Spoiling of children than a male under 25 yrs.


Emotional disturbance
Emotional disturbance than a male under 25 yrs.


Low self esteem
Low self esteem than a male under 25 yrs.


Living in a bad area
Living in a bad area than a male under 25 yrs.


Bad family examples
Bad family examples than a male under 25 yrs.


Single parenthood
Single parenthood than a male under 25 yrs.


Poverty
Poverty than a male under 25 yrs.


Instinct of aggression
Instinct of aggression than a male under 25 yrs.



What would be the best theory to use to explain these crimes
What would be the best theory to use to explain these crimes circumstances

  • Stealing from a supermarket

  • Taking drugs

  • Rape

  • Homicide

  • Genocide

  • Credit card fraud

  • Domestic violence


Plenary discussion
Plenary discussion circumstances

  • Free-will vs Determinism

  • Do we choose to commit crimes or are we determined by social structures?

  • Which of the theories suggest free-will and which suggest structural causes?

  • A clue – biological causes of crime are deterministic but are not sociological – they are psychological.


3 apply your sociological knowledge and reflect on your learning in the plenary squares game
3. circumstancesApply your Sociological knowledge and reflect on your learning in the Plenary Squares Game