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Carbohydrates. Honors Biology. Objectives. Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy.

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Honors Biology

  • Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy.
  • Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen from sugar molecules may combine with other elements to form amino acids and/or other large carbon-based molecules.
  • Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new compounds are formed resulting in a net transfer of energy.
recall macromolecules
Recall: Macromolecules
  • BIG biological molecules
    • Made of smaller parts
      • Monomers
  • Carbon-based (organic)
    • Carbohydrates
    • Nucleic acids
    • Proteins
    • Lipids
  • Monomer: monosaccharide
  • Used for:
    • Short term energy
    • Structural support
    • Cell tags (antennae)
  • Examples:
  • Fun fact: many carbohydrates have names that end in -ose
  • Simple (one sugar) carbohydrates
    • Example: glucose
  • Simple (two sugars bonded) carbohydrates
    • Example: lactose
  • Complex (many sugars bonded) carbohydrates
    • Example: starch, glycogen, chitin
how do we get carbohydrates
How do we get carbohydrates?
  • Photosynthesis
    • Creates glucose (C6H12O6) from CO2, H2O and sunlight

Reactants  Products

why does life depend on photosynthesis
Why does life depend on photosynthesis?
  • Autotrophs are the basis of all Earth’s ecosystems
  • Provide food for all organisms (directly and indirectly)
  • Provide O2 and remove CO2 from atmosphere
how does photosynthesis happen
How does photosynthesis happen?
  • The Details:
  • Series of 2 reactions:
    • Light Dependent Reactions
      • Location: chloroplast
      • Purpose: harvest solar energy to prepare to make sugars
      • Events: chlorophyll absorbs light, H2O is split, O2 is released
    • Calvin Cycle
      • Location: chloroplast
      • Purpose: make sugars
      • Events: CO2 is incorporated into C6H12O6 with H from H2O
how do we get energy
How do we get energy?
  • From eating….unless you are a plant, right?
  • Not so fast…
  • Glucose (and other macromolecules) is not usable energy for cells
  • Glucose must be converted to usable energy (ATP)
  • Adenosine triphosphate
  • Molecule that is usable energy for cells
  • Energy is found in bonds between phosphate groups
atp life s battery
ATP = Life’s Battery
  • ATP is a rechargeable molecule
  • Energy releasing reaction:
    • ATP loses a P
    • Adenosine diphosphate is left (ADP)
    • Energy is released for cellular use
  • Energy storing reaction:
    • P is reattached to ADP using energy from food
    • ATP is made again
    • Energy is stored for next time cell needs it
how do we make atp
How do we make ATP?
  • Cellular respiration
    • Converts energy from glucose into ATP
    • Now cells can do work!
why does life depend on cellular respiration
Why does life depend on cellular respiration?
  • Cells can’t use glucose as it is, must have ATP to function
  • This includes plant cells!
  • ALL cells must go through cellular respiration
how does cellular respiration happen
How does cellular respiration happen?
  • The Details:
  • Series of 3 reactions:
    • Glycolysis
      • Location: cytoplasm
      • Purpose: begin breakdown of C6H12O6
      • Events: C6H12O6is split, 2 ATP made
        • (glyco = sugar; -lysis = break)
    • Krebs Cycle
      • Location: mitochondria
      • Purpose: continue breakdown of C6H12O6
      • Events: CO2 is released, 2 ATP made
    • Electron Transport Chain
      • Location: mitochondria
      • Purpose: complete breakdown of , C6H12O6 make ATP
      • Events: O2 is used, H2O is formed, 32-34 ATP is made
aerobic respiration
Aerobic Respiration
  • Cellular respiration with oxygen
  • Produces 36-38 ATP per glucose
anaerobic respiration
Anaerobic Respiration
  • Cellular respiration without oxygen
  • Much less efficient at converting glucose to ATP
  • Occurs in 2 steps:

1. Glycolysis

2. Lactic Acid Fermentation (animals)


Alcoholic Fermentation (plants)

lactic acid fermentation
Lactic Acid Fermentation
  • Animals
    • Some bacteria, some fungus
  • Lactic acid is produced
    • Why muscles are sore after a hard workout
alcohol fermentation
Alcohol Fermentation
  • Plants
    • Some bacteria, some fungus
  • Ethanol, CO2 produced
    • How yeast makes bread rise
    • How alcoholic beverages are produced