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Objective. Students will be able to verbally list the reactants and products of Photosynthesis by the end of the period. Photosynthesis Chapter 8. Ag Biology Ms. Prescott. 8-1 Energy and Life. 8-2 Photosynthesis. 8-3 Light-Dependent Reactions & Calvin Cycle. 8-1 Energy and Life.

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objective
Objective
  • Students will be able to verbally list the reactants and products of Photosynthesis by the end of the period.
photosynthesis chapter 8

PhotosynthesisChapter 8

Ag Biology

Ms. Prescott

8-1 Energy and Life

8-2 Photosynthesis

8-3 Light-Dependent

Reactions & Calvin Cycle

saving for a rainy day
Saving for a Rainy Day

Suppose you earned extra money by having a part-time job. At first, you might be tempted to spend all of the money, but then you decide to open a bank account.

1. What are the benefits of having a bank account?

2. What do you have to do if you need some of this money?

3. What might your body do when it has more energy than it needs to carry out its activities?

4. What does your body do when it needs energy?

8 1 vocabulary
8-1 Vocabulary
  • Autotroph-
    • organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer
  • Heterotroph-
    • organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes; also called a consumer
  • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) –
    • one of the principal chemical compounds that living things use to store energy.
8 1 energy and life1
8-1 Energy and Life
  • 1. Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
    • Autotrophs: organisms, like plants, that use light energy from the sun to produce their own food Because plants can “manufacture” their own energy directly, they are self-sufficient.
    • Heterotrophs: organisms that obtain energy from foods they consume

All other forms of life, such as humans, animals, insects and even bacteria, depend on other living things for sustenance.

8 1 energy and life2
8-1 Energy and Life

2. Chemical Energy and ATP

a. The cell’s activities are powered by chemical fuels

i. ATP is a compound that living things use to store energy

ii. ADP is the compound used to store energy in cells

  • It can hold one more phosphate when energy is needed
  • Energy is released when ATP converts to ADP

Adenine

Ribose

3 Phosphate groups

slide8

Figure 8-3 Comparison of ADP and ATP to a Battery

Section 8-1

ADP

ATP

Energy

Energy

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

Partially

charged

battery

Fully

charged

battery

Go to Section:

slide9

Figure 8-3 Comparison of ADP and ATP to a Battery

Section 8-1

ADP

ATP

Energy

Energy

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

Partially

charged

battery

Fully

charged

battery

Go to Section:

8 1 energy and life3
8-1 Energy and Life

b. ATP and Glucose

a. Most cells only have a small amount of ATP, enough to last for only a few seconds of activity because it is not good for storing large amounts of energy for long periods of time

  • Glucose stores more than 90 times the energy of a molecule of ATP
  • Cells can regenerate ATP from ADP as needed by using the energy in carbohydrates, like glucose
8 2 interest grabber trapping energy
8-2 Interest Grabber Trapping Energy

Have you ever used a solar-powered calculator? No matter where you go, as long as you have a light source, the calculator works. You never have to put batteries in it.

1. A solar-powered calculator uses solar cells that are found in rows along the top of the calculator. Into what kind of energy is the light energy converted so that the calculator works?

2. Recall that plants use light energy from the sun to make food. Into what kind of energy is the light energy converted by plants?

3. Most plants, no matter what size or shape they are, have some parts that are green. Which parts of a plant are usually green?

4. What does the green color have to do with the plant’s ability to convert light energy into the energy found in the food it makes?

8 2 8 3 vocabulary
8-2/8-3 Vocabulary
  • Photosynthesis-
    • process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to power chemical reactions that convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugar and starches.
  • Pigment-
    • light-absorbing colored molecule
  • Chlorophyll-
    • principal pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms; capture light energy
  • Thylakoid-
    • Saclike body in chloroplasts made of photosynthetic membranes that contain photosystems.
8 2 8 3 photosynthesis notes
8-2/8-3 Photosynthesis Notes

1. The Photosynthesis Equation

  • Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert carbondioxide and water into high-energy sugar and oxygen
    • 6C02 + 6H2O  C6H12O6 +602
  • Chemically:

Green Plant

6C02 + 6H2O

C6H12O6 +602

Light Energy

( Carbon dioxide + Water Sugar + Oxygen)

  • Written:

“Six molecules of carbon dioxide plus six molecules of water combine in the presence of a green plant and light energy to form one molecule of sugar and six molecules of oxygen.”

8 2 8 3 photosynthesis
8-2/8-3 Photosynthesis

2. Light and Pigments

a. In addition to water and carbon dioxide, photosynthesis requires light and chlorophyll, a molecule in chloroplasts

b. Plants gather the sun’s energy with light-absorbing molecules called pigments

  • The principal pigment is chlorophyll
  • Energy molecules released from the reaction are ATP & NADPH
slide16

Photosynthesis: Reactants andProducts

Section 8-2

Light Energy

Chloroplast

CO2 + H2O

Sugars + O2

Go to Section:

slide17

Figure 8-5 Chlorophyll Light Absorption

Section 8-2

Absorption of Light by

Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b

Chlorophyll b

Chlorophyll a

V

B

G

Y

O

R

Go to Section:

8 2 8 3 photosynthesis1
8-2/8-3 Photosynthesis

3. Inside a Chloroplast

a. Chloroplasts contain saclike photosynthetic membranes call thylakoids arranged in stacks

b. The thylakoids contain clusters of chlorophyll and other pigments and protein known as photosystems

c. There are two stages to photosynthesis used to make glucose

  • Light-dependent reactions: take place in the thylakoid
  • Light-independent reactions (CalvinCycle): takes place in the stroma, outside the thylakoid
8 3 vocabulary
8-3 Vocabulary
  • Thylakoid-
    • saclike body in chloroplasts made of photosynthetic membranes that contain photosystems
  • Stroma-
    • region outside the thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts
  • NADP+ (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) –
    • one of the carrier molecules that transfer high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules.
8 3 vocabulary1
8-3 Vocabulary
  • Light-dependent reaction-
    • reactions of photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH
  • ATP synthase-
    • large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP
  • Calvin Cycle-
    • reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars.
8 3 light dependent reactions
8-3 Light-dependent Reactions

1. Light-Dependent Reactions

a. Light dependent reactions produce oxygen gas and convert ADP into energy carrier ATP

  • Water is split to produce H+ and O2 (oxygen)
  • Light energy is converted into chemical bond energy (ATP and NADPH)
8 3 calvin cycle
8-3 Calvin Cycle

2. The Calvin Cycle

a. The Calvin Cycle uses energy from the light-dependent reactions to make sugars

b. As photosynthesis continues, the CalvinCycle runs, producing sugars while removing carbondioxide from the atmosphere

CO2 Enters the Cycle

Energy Input

ChloropIast

5-Carbon

Molecules

Regenerated

6-Carbon Sugar

Produced

Sugars and other compounds

slide24

Light

CO2

Sugars

O2

Figure 8-7 Photosynthesis: An Overview

Section 8-3

Chloroplast

Chloroplast

NADP+

ADP + P

Light-

Dependent

Reactions

Calvin

Cycle

ATP

NADPH

Go to Section:

slide25

Light-

dependent

reactions

Calvin cycle

Energy from

sunlight

Thylakoid

membranes

ATP

Stroma

NADPH

High-energy

sugars

ATP

NADPH

O2

Chloroplasts

Concept Map

Section 8-3

Photosynthesis

includes

takes place in

uses

use

take place in

to produce

to produce

of