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Excretory System. Adam, Amy, Karl, Karlene , and Yifan. Introduction. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= guOqyi5lUQQ (1:46-4:36) Regulates bodily fluids, excreting and recycling waste Main organs: kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra Disorders of the excretory syste m. Excretion.

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adam amy karl karlene and yifan

Excretory System

Adam, Amy, Karl, Karlene, and Yifan

introduction
Introduction
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=guOqyi5lUQQ (1:46-4:36)
  • Regulates bodily fluids, excreting and recycling waste
  • Main organs: kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra
  • Disorders of the excretory system
excretion
Excretion
  • After metabolic activities (energy release, maintenance, repair) results in waste
  • Separating the needed and the unneeded or no longer needed
  • Skin, respiratory system, digestive system, excretory system
functions excretion of metabolic waste
Functions: Excretion of Metabolic Waste
  • The average person urinates 3000 a year
  • Bladder can hold 16-24 ounces of urine
  • Nitrogenous waste
  • Urea makes up the majority of this waste
functions maintenance of water salt balance
Functions: Maintenance of Water-Salt Balance
  • Maintain balance with water and salt in blood
  • Regulating blood pressure
  • Balance between potassium, bicarbonate and calcium
  • Cells need to stay in an isotonic solution
functions maintenance of acid base balance
Functions: Maintenance of Acid-Base Balance
  • Buffer for blood
  • Blood pH: 7.4
  • Urine is usually a pH of 6
  • Maintenance of alkaline reserve
functions secretion of hormones
Functions: Secretion of Hormones
  • Aids endocrine system in hormonal secretion
  • Calcitriol: Promotes calcium absorption
  • Erythropoiten: Production of red blood cells
  • Renin
organs
Organs
  • Kidneys: Lower back, filters waste from blood, functions named above
  • Ureter: Muscular tubes that carry urine
  • Urinary Bladder: Urine is stored
  • Urethra: Tube that urine is secreted from
kidney pathway1
Kidney: Pathway
  • Filter
  • Tubule
  • Duct
kidney filter
Kidney: Filter
  • Renal artery enters Bowman’s capsule; glomerulus
  • Walls of glomerulus are impermeable to large molecules
    • pressurized blood aids filtration
  • Small molecules are permeable
  • The result is known as filtrate
kidney tubule
Kidney: Tubule
  • Bowman’s capsule is connected to a looped tubule
  • Divided into three parts
    • Proximal convoluted tubule
    • Loop of Henle
    • Distal convoluted tubule
  • Used by each nephron for reabsorption
kidney tubule1
Kidney: Tubule
  • Proximal convoluted tubule
    • Uses ATP for active transport
    • Drives sodium ions, glucose, and other solutes back into the blood
    • Water follows these substances into the blood by osmosis
kidney tubule2
Kidney: Tubule
  • Loop of Henle
kidney tubule3
Kidney: Tubule
  • Loop of Henle
    • Descending limb extends from within the renal cortex into the renal medulla; extremely salty
      • Permeable to water; water flows back into blood
    • Ascending limb is impermeable to water and slightly permeable to solutes
      • Na+diffuses out of the tubule and into nearby blood vessels
kidney tubule4
Kidney: Tubule
  • In the thick-walled section, more Na+is removed by active transport (uses ATP)
    • Replenishes medulla’s salt
    • Makes the filtrate less concentrated than surrounding cortex tissue
kidney tubule5
Kidney: Tubule

Medulla is salty

Increases osmolarity for future filtrate

Reabsorption of water causes salt concentration to decrease

ATP is used to actively reabsorb sodium ions

kidney tubule6
Kidney: Tubule
  • Loop of Henle
kidney tubule7
Kidney: Tubule
  • Distal convoluted tubule
    • Active reabsorption depends on the needs of the body (sodium ions)
    • Passive reabsorption of negative ions occurs by electrical attraction (chloride)
    • Potassium ions and hydrogen ions are actively secreted by the body
kidney duct
Kidney: Duct
  • Tubule empties into a large pipe-like channel called a collecting duct
    • Lowers back into the medulla; reabsorbs water
  • The size of the pores depends on signals from the brain
  • The result can now be called urine
  • Reabsorbed substances are returned to the body
water balance pituitary gland
Water Balance: Pituitary Gland
  • The pituitary gland is a gland at the base of the brain that sends signals to other glands and organs such as the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, ovaries, and testes
    • Directs them to produce certain hormones
    • Produces LD, ADH, FSH, and growth hormones
water balance aldosterone
Water Balance: Aldosterone
  • Aldosterone is a hormone that is produced by the adrenalglands
  • It works primarily on kidney (renal) cells to help maintain the balance of fluids and electrolytes in our bodies
  • It mainly works to control reabsorption of sodium and chloride and secretion of potassium and hydrogen
water balance aldosterone1
Water Balance: Aldosterone
  • Pathway:
    • The role of aldosterone in sodium and water balance is to regulate fluid and electrolyte balance
    • When sodium and plasma volume is decreased, it triggers the synthesis and secretion of aldosterone
    • When sodium and plasma volume return to normal levels, aldosterone secretion is reduced
water balance adh
Water Balance: ADH
  • A hormone produced in the hypothalamus and secreted by the posterior pituitary gland
  • ADH stimulates reabsorption of water through the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the kidney, resulting in less water being excreted in the urine, thus conserving water
water balance adh1
Water Balance: ADH
  • Pathway:
    • Part of the brain, the hypothalamus, detects that there is not enough water in the blood. The hypothalamus sends a message to the pituitary gland, which releases ADH. ADH travels from brain to the kidney and causes the kidneys to absorb more water and concentrate the urine. A lack of ADH results in increased urine volume and increased urination, a condition called diabetes insipidis.
water balance adh2
Water Balance: ADH
  • ADH: antidiuretic hormone
  • Pathway:
    • Part of the brain, the hypothalamus, detects that there is not enough water in the blood
    • The hypothalamus sends a message to the pituitary gland, which releases ADH
    • ADH travels from brain to the kidney and causes the kidneys to absorb more water and concentrate the urine
    • A lack of ADH results in increased urine volume and increased urination, a condition called diabetes insipidis.
regulation of blood ph

Regulation of Blood pH

Maintaining Blood pH in the Excretory System

blood ph introduction
Blood pH: Introduction
  • The normal pH of blood is around 7.4
    • Allows our enzymes to function optimally
  • Failing to maintain homeostasis causes our blood pH to either increase or decrease
    • This increase/decrease can result in serious medical condition
blood ph introduction1
Blood pH: Introduction
  • One way our blood pH can change in based on the foods/liquids we consume
    • Blood pH can also changed from metabolic processes
  • Three main homeostatic mechanisms used to maintain blood pH
    • Acid-Base Buffer System
    • Respiratory Centre
    • Kidney Function
blood ph acid base buffer
Blood pH: Acid-Base Buffer
  • Buffers blood; prevents changes in pH
  • Takes up extra H+ ions of extra OH- ions that enter the blood
  • One of the most important buffer system involves the use of carbonic acid and bicarbonate ions
blood ph acid base buffer1
Blood pH: Acid-Base Buffer
  • The system reacts differently depending on the presence of extra hydrogen ions of extra hydroxide ions
  • If H+is added, the reaction that occurs is:
    • H+ + HCO3- H2C03
  • When OH- ions are added to blood:
    • OH- + H2CO3 HCO3- + H2O
blood ph acid base buffer2
Blood pH: Acid-Base Buffer
  • In the first reaction, the bicarbonate ion takes up excess hydrogen ion, in order to form carbonic acid
  • In the second reaction, water is produced
    • Water will help maintain the blood pH, since water is neutral
  • These reactions temporarily prevent major changes in pH
blood ph respiratory centre
Blood pH: Respiratory Centre
  • The hydrogen ion concentration is raised, the respiratory centre(in the medulla oblongata) increases breathing rate
    • It does this through specific signals that ensure our breathing muscles contract and relax regularly
    • Doing this causes the body to get rid of hydrogen ions
  • H+ + HCO3- H2CO3 H2O + CO2
blood ph respiratory centre1
Blood pH: Respiratory Centre
  • When the reaction moves from carbon dioxide to hydrogen, the blood pH decreases and increases the other way
  • Increasing breathing causes carbon dioxide to be generated more quickly, decreasing the number of hydrogen ions
  • It is vital to have the correct proportion of carbonic acid to bicarbonate ions in blood
  • Breathing causes a readjustment so the proportion is correct so H+ and OH- can continue to be absorbed
blood ph kidneys
Blood pH: Kidneys
  • The first two mechanisms are aided by powerful actions of the kidneys
    • Only the kidneys are able to rid the body of a vast range of acidic and basic substances
  • Kidneys are slower acting, but have a more powerful effect
  • It is possible to urinate the excess acidic H+ ions or basic HCO3-ions in order to raise or lower blood pH
blood ph kidneys1
Blood pH: Kidneys
  • Imagine the kidneys as releasing H+ and reabsorbing HCO3- in order to maintain homeostasis
  • If blood is too acidic, H+ is released and HCO3- is absorbed
    • However, if blood is basic, neither is used
  • Another way of buffering is by using ammonia
    • Removes hydrogen ions and adds in bicarbonate ions
    • NH3 + H+ NH4+
blood ph kidneys2
Blood pH: Kidneys
  • Ammonia is produced in the tubule cells through the breakdown of amino acids
  • Ammonia works to produce ammonium ions
    • For every ammonium ion that is produced, a new HCO3− is made
blood ph summary
Blood pH: Summary
  • There are three mechanisms used to maintain homeostasis, in terms of blood pH
    • Acid-Base Buffer System
    • Respiratory Centre
    • Kidney Function
  • Each one has a unique way of doing so
  • All three have advantages and disadvantages that go along with them
dialysis introduction
Dialysis: Introduction
  • What is dialysis?
    • Procedure that removes wastes and excess fluid from the blood when kidney function is lost due to renal failure
  • Why is dialysis needed?
    • Hyperkalemia
      • High potassium
    • Hyperphosphatemia
      • High phosphate
    • Uremia
    • Edema
conclusion
Conclusion
  • The human excretory system is responsible for removing liquid waste from the body
  • The excretory system also regulates the acid-base balance and water-salt balance of the blood and secretes some hormones like ADH
  • The kidneys are composed of millions of functional units called nephrons that filter the waste from the blood and produce urine.
  • Dialysis is the procedure that removes wastes and excess fluid from the blood when kidney function is loss due to renal failure
question 1
Question #1
  • What is urine?
answer
Answer
  • Filtrate of the nephron upon leaving the collecting duct; exits the body through the urethra
question 2
Question #2
  • What is a function in the excretory system that is involved in regulating blood pressure and the appropriate potassium, bicarbonate, and calcium levels in blood?
answer1
Answer

Maintenance of Water-Salt Balance

question 3
Question #3
  • What is the role of ADH?
answer2
Answer
  • Stimulates reabsorption of water through the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the kidney
  • Results in less water being excreted in urine
question 4
Question #4
  • What is the pituitary gland?
answer3
Answer
  • Gland at the base of the brain
  • Send signals to other glands and organs to produce certain hormones
question 5
Question #5
  • What is this picture showing?
answer4
Answer
  • Respiratory Centre Equation
question 6
Question #6
  • What is this picture showing?
answer5
Answer
  • The process of how the kidneys maintain the pH of blood
question 7
Question #7
  • Name the 2 types of dialysis. What are their differences?
answer6
Answer
  • Hemodialysis
    • Removing wastes and excess fluids from the blood by an external devices connected to an artery and a vein in a person’s arm.
    • For acute renal failure
  • Peritoneal Dialysis
    • Removing wastes and excess fluids from the blood by inserting a catheter into the abdominal cavity.
    • For Chronic renal Failure
question 8
Question #8
  • What type of dialysis is this picture showing?
answer7
Answer
  • Hemodialysis
references
References
  • http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health//dci/Diseases/hlw/hlw_controls.html
  • http://h2g2.com/approved_entry/A8819652
  • https://www.inkling.com/read/textbook-of-medical-physiology-guyton-hall-12th/chapter-30/combination-of-excess-h-with
  • Grade 12 Biology Textbook
slide69

Carter-Edwards, T., Gerards, S., Gibbons, K., McCallum, S., Noble, R., Parrington, J.,...Whyte-Smith, A. (2011). Biology 12. Canada, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, pp.444-462.

  • DeBruyne, L. K., Pinna, K., & Whitney, E. (2012). Nutrition & Diet Therapy (8thed.). United States, Wadsworth, CengageLearning, pp595-607.
slide70

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cc8sUv2SuaY

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WtrYotjYvtU
  • http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/function-kidneys
  • http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/human-biology/kidney1.htm