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Polyploidy. Polyploidy, Allopolyploidy, Autopolyploidy, Amphiploidy. Definitions. Polyploidy = when an organism contains 3 or more times the haploid (1N) number of chromosomes. E.g. Normal for 2N (homologous pairs), polyploidy = 3N or more) (Rare in ANIMALS, but common in PLANTS).

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    1. Polyploidy Polyploidy, Allopolyploidy, Autopolyploidy, Amphiploidy

    2. Definitions Polyploidy = when an organism contains 3 or more times the haploid (1N) number of chromosomes. E.g. Normal for 2N (homologous pairs), polyploidy = 3N or more) (Rare in ANIMALS, but common in PLANTS). Hermaphrodite animals usually are polyploidy, such as flatworms, and earthworms. Polyploid humans usually abort spontaneously.

    3. Usually they spontaneously abort however this one made it to full term! Polyploid = triploid (3N) One parent contributes the normal 22 autosomes + one sex chromosome, the other parent contributes the full 46 chromosomes. About 2% of conceptions! BUT could be more, as most abort. Human Polyploid Karyotype

    4. Definitions cont… Allopolyploidy = type of polyploidy, results from mating between TWO different SPECIES. THINK PLANTS!!! Species A mates with Species B to produce infertile hybrid. Failure during Meiosis (non-disjunction) doubles the number of chromosomes in they hybrid. The hybrid self fertilises to produce a fertile new species. AA + BB = AB (infertile hybrid) AB non-disjunction = AABB, gametes AB (pollen), AB (egg) Self fertilise = AB + AB = AABB (fertile new species)

    5. Definitions cont… Amphiploidy = The name given to the step when there is an error in meiosis (non disjunction) resulting in double the number of chromosomes in the hybrid. In plant evolution – especially wheat this has happened and with more than two species interacting to form a fertile new species. • AA mates with BB = AB (infertile hybrid) • Amphiploidy results = AABB (new fertile species) • AABB mates with DD = ABD (infertile hybrid) • Amphiploidy results = AABBDD (new fertile species – with all the desirable traits)

    6. Allopolyploidy - wheat

    7. Definitions cont… Autopolyploidy = form of polyploidy, results from mating between SAME SPECIES. E.g. Chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis. Species A mates with species A, non-disjunction occurs in both individuals or within one plant resulting in their gametes carrying AA or nothing. When AA + AA fertilise (or self fertilise) = AAAA (fertile hybrid). If non-disjunction occurs in only one individualthen the hybrid will be infertile. AA + A = AAA (infertile)

    8. Autopolyploidy

    9. Summary Non-disjunction – this is the process that leads to these mutations and how species can go from producing infertile hybrids to fertile new species! Colchicine = drug used to double chromosome number. Destroys spindle fibers so chromatids can’t separate. BUT why are hybrids usually infertile?

    10. WHY? All species have their specific number of chromosomes (plant = 6CH, 3 homologous pairs), during meiosis the pairs have to match up before they separate. Scenario: • Non-disjunction occurs in female part (Egg). • One of her eggs containing 6 CH is fertilised by a pollen that has gone through meiosis without error (pollen = 3 CH). • Seed = 9 CH. • The seed germinates and becomes a plant that is infertile because when its reproductive structures go through meiosis they can’t pair up as there is not an even number of CH (half of 9 = 4.5). However if you can double the number of CH (9x2 = 18) = amphiploidy, you can get gametes (pollen and eggs) carrying CH that can pair up evenly. • Results in a new species! – remember this for speciation (evolution)