Peopling the land
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Peopling the Land. Topic 2.1. Creation Stories. There are two approaches to the question; How did humans populate the earth? Many cultures have creation stories or beliefs that suggest some sort of intelligent design, usually by a god(s) See story page 88 – The Origin of Man and the Animals

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Creation stories
Creation Stories

There are two approaches to the question; How did humans populate the earth?

  • Many cultures have creation stories or beliefs that suggest some sort of intelligent design, usually by a god(s) See story page 88 – The Origin of Man and the Animals

  • Scientists approach the question using scientific data; humans first evolved in Africa 200 000 years ago and spread around the world

How did humans get from africa to the americas
How did humans get from Africa to the Americas?

  • One theory is people crossed on a land bridge – Beringia – that connected Siberia to Alaska.

  • This occurred 9000 to 50 000 years ago during the last ice age.

  • These people spread across the Americas and diversified into many culturally distinct groups.

Old world vs new world
Old World vs. New World

  • Beringia disappeared beneath the sea and the Americas were isolated from the rest of the world

  • At the end of the 15th century there were two huge groups of people on two landmasses oblivious to the existence of each other.

  • Old World – parts of the world known only to Europeans, Asians and Africans

  • New World – the Americas and Oceania

Population distribution
Population Distribution

  • At the end of the 15th century there were approx. 40-60 million people living in the Americas – New World

  • Most were in Mexico and Peru

  • Most people lived an agrarian (farming) lifestyle

  • There were a few large centers; Tenochtitlan –Aztec city (Mexico City) & Machu Picchu – Incan city (Peru)

  • In other areas people were hunter-gatherers

Hunter gatherer lifestyles
Hunter-Gatherer Lifestyles

  • Hunter-gatherers need 10sq. Km to survive. As the population density increased they had to move around to find new resources.

  • Groups spread out in response to conflict b/w groups and changes in environmental conditions.

  • There was extensive trade between various groups

  • Trade allowed groups to share resources from their areas and to build alliances.

Trading items
Trading Items

  • Dried fish

  • Maize

  • Beans

  • Obsidian

  • Chert

  • Shells

  • Pottery

  • Knives and needles

Meanwhile in the old world in the 1500s
Meanwhile in the Old World in the 1500s

  • The population in Europe was 80-100 million

  • Most people lived in an agrarian and rural settings

  • At this time Europe experienced a population growth

  • As the demand for resources increased Europeans began to look outward – the New World – for resources.


  • Questions 1,2,3,4 page 113

Who was here

Who Was Here?

Topic 2.2

Pages 114-119

Who was in newfoundland and labrador
Who was in Newfoundland and Labrador?

  • The first human residents are believed to have arrived in 7000 BCE

  • Various groups migrated through the province over the next several 1000s of years

  • The first groups were AmerIndians and Paleo-Eskimos

  • Later groups were the Thule and the Norse


  • Descendants of the people who migrated across the Beringia land bridge

  • These groups include: Labrador Archaic, the Maritime Archiac, Intermediate Indians and Recent Indians

  • It is not known what happened to cause the disappearance of each of these groups.

Paleo eskimos old eskimo
Paleo-Eskimos (“old Eskimo”)

  • Moved to northern Labrador 2100 BCE

  • These people are believed to have migrated from Greenland or the high Arctic

  • The first group are known as “Pre-Dorset”

  • Lived in sheltered inner harbours along the Labrador coast

  • This group declined c. 1500BCE

  • They were replaced by the “Groswater Paleo-Eskimo” c.800 BCE and lived here until 100BCE in Labrador and 100CE in Newfoundland

Paleo eskimo c0nt
Paleo-Eskimo c0nt….

  • A new culture, the Dorset Paleo-Eskimo, arrived in Labrador from the north

  • Dorset sites are distributed along the entire coasts of Newfoundland and Labrador

  • By 1300CE the Dorset had disappeared from the province, no one knows why


  • 600 years ago the Thule arrived in Labrador from northern Alaska, migrating across the Arctic and Greenland

  • They adapted their lifestyle to fit the Labrador environment and formed a distinct cultural group – Labrador Inuit

Prehistoric technologies
Prehistoric Technologies

  • The early peoples of NL developed technologies to help them survive in their environment

  • Tools were made from available materials: stone, wood, animal products


Page 118-119

Question 3