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Asbestos Awareness Training City of Phoenix - Human Resources Safety Section. Regulatory Information. Federal Regulations OSHA - Employee Safety General Industry (29 CFR 1910.1001) Shipyards (29 CFR 1915.1001) Construction Industry (29 CFR 1926.1101) EPA TCSA/AHERA

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Asbestos Awareness Training City of Phoenix - Human Resources Safety Section

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regulatory information
Regulatory Information
  • Federal Regulations
    • OSHA - Employee Safety
      • General Industry (29 CFR 1910.1001)
      • Shipyards (29 CFR 1915.1001)
      • Construction Industry (29 CFR 1926.1101)
    • EPA
      • TCSA/AHERA
      • Asbestos Containing Materials in Schools
      • ASHARA (1990)
      • NESHAPS (40 CFR 61, Subpart M)
    • DOT
      • Transportation
what is asbestos
What is Asbestos?
  • Naturally occurring mineral
  • Found throughout the world
  • It is mined much the same way as other minerals
  • Resistant to heat and corrosive chemicals
  • Whitish fibrous material which can release fibers that range in texture from coarse to silky.
where is asbestos produced
Where is Asbestos Produced?
  • Russia
  • Canada
  • South Africa
  • Limited in the USA
who uses asbestos now
Who Uses Asbestos Now?
  • European and Asian Countries
  • United States
    • No current ban
    • Ban on visible emissions
    • Phased out for the most part
    • Regulatory implications limit use
asbestos bans
Asbestos Bans
  • 1973 – Spraying of ACM
  • 1975 – Pipe coverings
  • 1977 – Patching compounds & artificial fireplace logs
  • 1978 – Sprayed-on asbestos decorations
  • 1979 – Asbestos-containing hairdryers
  • Home construction use was banned in three stages over 7 years beginning in 1990
types of asbestos
Types of Asbestos
  • Minerals are divided into two groups
    • Serpentine – layered structure
    • Amphibole – chain-like structure
types of asbestos1
Types of Asbestos
  • Serpentine Group (one type):
    • Chrysotile – White Asbestos (most common)
  • Amphibole Group (five types):
    • Amosite – Brown Asbestos
    • Crocidolite – Blue Asbestos
    • Rare Types:
      • Anthophyllite
      • Tremolite
      • Actinolite
properties of asbestos
Properties of Asbestos
  • Fire Resistant
  • High Tensile Strength
  • Good Thermal Qualities
  • Electrical Insulator
  • Acoustical Properties
asbestos fibrous structure
Asbestos Fibrous Structure
  • Very Small – may be up to 700 times smaller than a human hair
  • Invisible
  • Long/Fibrous
  • Sharp
  • Very Light – may stay suspended in air for up to several days
  • Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM)
  • Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM)
  • Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
uses of asbestos
Uses of Asbestos
  • Used in hundreds of products
  • Referred to as asbestos-containing material (ACM)
  • Fire resistant
  • Common Uses:
    • Sprayed-on Fireproofing
    • Mixed with Concrete/Vermiculite/Binder Products
    • Acoustical Insulator
    • Asphalt, Floor Tile, Joint Compounds, Adhesives
    • Thermal Insulator
common uses of asbestos
Common Uses of Asbestos
  • Over 3,000 products
    • Pipe Insulation
    • Boiler Breeching/Boiler Lagging
    • Boiler Doors/Gaskets
    • Fire Proofing
    • Acoustical
    • Ceiling Tile
    • Brake Pads & Linings
common uses of asbestos1
Common Uses of Asbestos
  • Floor Tile
  • Mastics/Adhesives/Glues
  • Roofing
  • Electrical Insulation
  • Putties, caulks, and cements
  • Joint Compound
  • Siding (transite)
  • Hairdryers (banned in 1979)
  • Cigarette filters (Kent) 1952-1956
friable vs non friable
Friable vs. Non-Friable
  • ACM (Greater than 1%):
    • Friable
      • Crumbled/Reduced to Powder by hand pressure
      • Sanded, Grounded
      • Ability to become airborne
    • Non-Friable
      • Hard, rock-like
      • Fibers bound to matrix
categories of acbm or presumed asbestos containing materials pacm
Categories of ACBM or Presumed Asbestos Containing Materials (PACM)
  • Surfacing Material
    • Sprayed-on or troweled-on
categories of acbm pacm
Categories of ACBM/PACM
  • Thermal System Insulation (TSI)
    • Inhibit heat transfer

Includes mudded pipe elbows and joints and various types of pipe wraps

categories of acbm pacm1
Categories of ACBM/PACM
  • Miscellaneous
    • Any other material usually non-friable
health effects associated with asbestos exposure
Health Effects Associated with Asbestos Exposure
  • Extensively studied for many years
  • Inhalation of fibers may lead to increased risk of disease
  • Difficult to destroy asbestos fibers
  • The body cannot break them down or remove them once they are lodged in the lung or body tissues
  • They remain in place where they can cause disease
  • The amount of time between exposure to asbestos and the first signs of disease can be as much as 40 years.
health effects associated with asbestos exposure1
Health Effects Associated with Asbestos Exposure
  • Majority of people who died were workers frequently exposed to high concentrations of asbestos fibers with no protection
the respiratory system
The Respiratory System
  • Parts of the Airway



parts of the airway
Parts of the Airway
  • Alveoli Sacs



health effects
Health Effects
  • Three primary diseases associated with asbestos exposure:
    • Asbestosis
    • Lung Cancer
    • Mesothelioma
    • Other Diseases
  • A serious, chronic, non-cancerous respiratory disease
  • Asbestos fibers aggravate lung tissues, which causes them to scar
  • Symptoms include shortness of breath and a dry crackling sound in the lungs when inhaling
  • In advanced stages, may cause cardiac failure
  • No effective treatment
lung cancer
Lung Cancer
  • Causes the largest number of deaths related to asbestos exposure
  • Common symptoms are coughing and a change in breathing, shortness of breath, persistent chest pains, hoarseness, and anemia
  • Greater risk for smokers
  • Rare form of cancer
  • About 200 cases diagnosed a year in the U.S.
  • Occurs in the thin membrane lining of the lungs, chest, and abdomen
other diseases
Other Diseases
  • Evidence suggests that cancers in the esophagus, larynx, oral cavity, stomach, colon and kidney may be caused by ingesting asbestos
  • Cancer of pancreas, pleural plaques, pleural thickening, pleural effusion
determining factors
Determining Factors
  • The amount and duration of exposure
  • Whether or not you smoke
  • Age
amount duration of exposure
Amount & Duration of Exposure
  • The more you are exposed, the greater chance that more fibers will enter your body and the more likely you are to develop asbestos related problems
  • While there is no “safe level” of asbestos exposure, people who are exposed more frequently over a long period of time are more at risk
whether or not you smoke
Whether or Not You Smoke
  • If you smoke and have been exposed to asbestos, you are far more likely to develop cancer than someone who does not smoke and who has not been exposed to asbestos
  • If you work with asbestos or have been exposed to it, the first thing you should do to reduce your chances of developing cancer is to stop smoking
synergistic relationship between asbestos smoking
Synergistic Relationship between Asbestos & Smoking
  • Asbestos workers who smoke are about 90 times more likely to develop lung cancer than people who neither smoke nor have been exposed to asbestos
  • Cases of mesothelioma have occurred in the children of asbestos workers whose only exposures were from the dust brought home on the clothing of family members who worked with asbestos
  • The younger people are when they inhale asbestos, the more likely they are to develop mesothelioma
steve mcqueen hollywood actor
Steve McQueen – Hollywood Actor
  • Film Star
    • Great Escape
    • The Sand Pebbles
    • Bullitt
    • Thomas Crown Affair
  • Worked in Shipyard Industry
  • Auto Racer and Mechanic
  • Died in November 1980

Was diagnosed with a form of lung cancer, mesothelioma, which is related to asbestos exposure. Steve McQueen wore an asbestos-insulated racers suit in his race cars, and possibly was exposed to the harmful insulation material during his stint in the Marines.

asbestos regulations
Asbestos Regulations
  • OSHA – 29 CFR
    • General Industry (1910.1001)
    • Shipyards (1915.1001)
    • Construction Industry (1926.1101)
  • EPA – AHERA (Inspections)
  • EPA – NESHAPS (Waste Disposal)
  • DOT - Transportation
osha worker protection
OSHA – Worker Protection
  • OSHA has four classes of asbestos work:
    • Class I – Involves removal of TSI and Surfacing ACM/PACM
    • Class II – Removal of all ACM other than TSI and Surfacing Material
    • Class III – Repair and Maintenance operations that results in the disturbance of any ACM
    • Class IV – Maintenance and Custodial activities resulting in the cleanup of ACM and PACM debris
osha worker protection1
OSHA – Worker Protection
  • Class I & II – Large Scale Asbestos Abatement:
    • 40 Hours of Training Required
    • No City of Phoenix Employees performing abatement
    • Asbestos Abatement for COP performed by Contractors
  • Class III - Maintenance and Repair Activities:
    • 16 Hours of Training Required
    • Includes Respiratory Protection
    • Training Provided by Outside Consultant
  • Class IV – Housekeeping Activities:
    • Responsible for Cleaning PACM Dust
    • 2 Hours of Awareness Training Required
potential locations of acm
Potential Locations of ACM
  • To determine whether an asbestos inspection has been conducted for your building:
    • Review the asbestos inspection reports that identifies the location of ACM prior to start of project
    • In the event no report is available, contact your supervisor to determine whether samples have been collected
potential locations of acm1
Potential Locations of ACM
  • Only EPA-AHERA Certified Building Inspectors are allowed to collect samples of PACM.
  • Please contact the Human Resources Department – Safety Section or Public Works – Environmental Services (PWES) in the event bulk samples of suspect materials are needed for testing.
acm found in buildings
ACM Found in Buildings
  • Surfacing Materials
    • Sprayed-on:
      • Popcorn ceilings
      • Fireproofing
    • Troweled-on:
      • Ceiling texture
      • Wall texture
acm found in buildings1
ACM Found in Buildings
  • Thermal System Insulation:
    • Hot/Cold Water Supply
    • Chilled Water Supply
    • Steam Supply & Return
    • Roof Drains
    • Chemical/Waste Transport Pipelines
acm found in buildings2
ACM Found in Buildings
  • Types of TSI:
    • Corrugated cardboard type wrap
    • White chalky pipe wrap
    • Fibrous glass insulation covering pipe wrap
    • Cementious mud around pipe fittings
    • Hard canvas wrapped insulation
    • Block Insulation
    • Batt Insulation on Boilers/Breeching
    • Batt Insulation on inside ducts
    • Rope around pipe sleeves in ceilings/floors
acm found in buildings3
ACM Found in Buildings
  • Miscellaneous Materials:
    • Vinyl Floor Tile
    • Floor Tile Mastic/Adhesive
    • Roofing Felts
    • Roofing Putty
    • Ceiling Tiles
    • Ceiling Tile Glue (“Hockey Pucks”)
    • Transite (Sheeting/Shingles/Piping)
work practices and procedures
Work Practices and Procedures
  • For Class IV Workers:
    • Ask Supervisor whether the area has been tested for asbestos if suspect materials are present.
    • Identify PACM that will be impacted by your repair/maintenance activity.
    • Copy and complete Notification Form for PACM and provide copy to supervisor.
    • Contact HR Safety or PWES for asbestos sampling.
work practices and procedures1
Work Practices and Procedures
  • If you are assigned to clean up PACM dust in an area (Class IV work) do the following:
    • Use Vacuum Equipped with HEPA Filters
    • Use Wet Methods for during clean-up, where feasible
    • PACM Dust should be disposed in Leak-Tight Containers (sealed 6-mil poly bags; container with lid, drums, etc.)
work practices and procedures2
Work Practices and Procedures
  • The following Work Practices are PROHIBITED:
    • Use of Compressed Air to Remove ACM or PACM Dust
    • Dry Sweeping, Shoveling or other Dry Cleanup of PACM Dust and Debris
    • Sanding/Grinding/Cutting of Floor Tile and/or Wall Texture containing ACM
how to avoid asbestos exposure
How to Avoid Asbestos Exposure
  • Be aware of the locations where it is likely to be found
  • If you are not sure if it is asbestos, assume that it is until it is verified otherwise
  • Do not disturb asbestos
  • Report damaged asbestos immediately to your supervisor
how to avoid asbestos exposure1
How to Avoid Asbestos Exposure

NEVER: Drill Hammer

Cut Saw

Break Damage

Move Disturb

Any asbestos-containing materials or suspected materials

  • Never sand or dry buff asbestos containing floor tiles
  • Low abrasion pads should be used at speeds below 300 rpm
  • Do not remove broken or damaged floor tiles or ceiling tiles which may contain asbestos
  • Report all damaged asbestos immediately
what are the solutions
What are the Solutions?
  • Encapsulation
  • Enclosure
  • Removal
  • Sealing or encapsulating involves coating materials so that the asbestos is sealed in.
  • Only effective for undamaged asbestos-containing substances.
  • If materials are soft or crumbly or otherwise damaged, sealing is not appropriate.
  • Enclosing involves placing something over or around the material that contains asbestos to prevent release of fibers.
  • An expensive and hazardous process that should be a last resort
  • Removal may be required when remodeling, making major structural changes or if the asbestos material is damaged and can not be otherwise repaired
  • Removal can only be done by licensed individuals who have received special training
  • Improper removal may increase the health risks to those exposed
what approach should be taken
What approach should be taken?
  • Asbestos material in buildings should be appropriately managed
  • Workers who may disturb ACM should be properly trained and protected
epa s five major facts
EPA’s Five Major Facts
  • FACT ONE: Although asbestos is hazardous, human risk of asbestos disease depends upon exposure
  • FACT TWO: Prevailing asbestos levels in buildings – the levels you and I face as building occupants – seems to be very low, based upon available data. Accordingly, the health risk we face as building occupants also appears to be very low
epa s five major facts1
EPA’s Five Major Facts
  • FACT THREE: Removal is often not a building owner’s best course of action to reduce asbestos exposure. In fact, an improper removal can create a dangerous situation where none previously existed
  • FACT FOUR: EPA only requires asbestos removal in order to prevent significant public exposure to asbestos, such as during building renovation or demolition
epa s five major facts2
EPA’s Five Major Facts
  • FACT FIVE: EPA does recommend in-place management whenever asbestos is discovered. Instead of removal, a conscientious in-place management program will usually control fiber releases, particularly when the materials are not significantly damaged and are not likely to be disturbed
  • Know where asbestos materials are located in your facility.
  • Do not disturb ACM or PACM.
  • If you notice damage, report it ASAP.
  • Protect yourself and other building occupants.
  • Notify contractors of the presence of asbestos.
  • Quiz
  • Complete Evaluation Forms