Intro to Website Design Presented by: Donald Chase, LoudOffice.com donald@LoudOffice.com http://www.LoudOffice.com/class
Course Overview & Agenda • Session I – Intro to HTML • Introduction • Basics of the Internet and HTML • HTML Coding Standards • Basic Web Page Tags • Adding and Formatting Text • Formatting Your Page • How Your Server Works • Homework #1 • Q&A and Independent Work
Overview & Agenda (cont.) • Session II – HTML Part II • Adding Hyperlinks and Email Addresses • Creating Lists • Images and Graphical Elements • Image Maps • Using Tables • Homework #2 • Q&A and Independent Work
Overview & Agenda (cont.) • Session III – HTML Wrap-up, Concepts, Tools • Using Frames • Special Characters • How to “Liberate” Content • Conceptualizing Your Website • Tools of the Trade • How to Publish Your Website • Final Q&A and Independent Work
Introduction • Class Introduction • Who are you? • Why do you want to learn HTML? • Is there a project you want to work on? • How we’re going to be developing pages • Using Microsoft notepad or any text editor • Viewing pages in class (Explorer / Netscape) • Working from home • Saving work to a disk
To Help You Learn HTML • Books • “Teach Yourself HTML 4 in 24 Hours” by SAMS. • “HTML 4 in 21 Days” by Laura Lemay. • After you’re comfortable, any HTML tag reference book will cover the basics. • http://www.LoudOffice.com/class • Check out the Class Notes and Links sections for online links. • This site is being built ‘as we speak’, so check back often.
Our Class Project • We will build a personal website that will be published in class during the third session. • The site will contain the following pages: • A Welcome / Home Page • A Page About Yourself (Interests, Work, etc.) • Your Online Resume • A Small Photo Album
Getting Started • We will be using MS Notepad to write our HTML. • Pages will be saved to your floppy drive. • Pages will be viewed as they are created in your browser. • We will use this overhead presentation as well as handouts and the Class website.
Basics of the Internet • In the simplest sense, the Internet is a collection of inter-connected computers (servers) over shared lines. • Servers are just like the computers you use at home and work, but more powerful. • The Internet became “browse-able” in the 1990s with the creation of the HTTP protocol and creation of HTML.
HTTP & HTML • HTTP – HyperText Transfer ProtocolMethod by which a computer jumps from one page to another by clicking on links. • HTML – HyperText Markup LanguageMarkup language that allows for the formatting of Internet Documents. • Plain Text Language • Universal Compatibility • Most-recent version is HTML 4.0
What HTML Does Turns Text Like This My name is Donald. What is your name? Formatted Like This <html> <head> <title>Hello world</title> </head> <body> <b>My name is Donald.</b><br> <center><i>What is your name?</i></center> </body> </html> INTO THIS…
Try It Yourself… Create your own page: <html> <head> <title>Hello World</title> </head> <body> My name is __________. </body> </html> [Name your file as index.htm]
HTML Coding Standards • HTML markup takes the form of TAGS <tag>Marked up text</tag> • Some of these tags have attributes <tag attribute=“value”>Text</tag> • Some tags have opening and closing elements, while some have just opening <center><img src=“image.gif”></center>
Basic Web Page Tags Each web page has four basic tag sets:
Template For HTML Pages <html> <head> <title>Page Title Goes Here</title> </head> <body> Page content goes here. </body> </html>
Adding Text • Adding text is as simple as typing text between the <body> tags, except: • Browsers ignore multiple spaces, spacing only once unless told otherwise. • Browsers do not know when to start new paragraphs or break at the end of lines. • Browsers do not know how you wish to format text.
Paragraphs • The <p> tag tells the browser to insert a new paragraph. • The closing tag for this (</p>) is optional, but recommended. • The <p> tag has one attribute, ‘align’ that controls the on-page alignment of your paragraph. • Options are left, center, right, justify • This attribute has been Deprecated in HTML 4.0.
To insert a line break, use the <br> tag. Note, that this tag has no closing tag. Ex. ‘Hello<br>World’: HelloWorld Line Breaks
How <p> and <br> Differ • The <br> tag forces a one-line break, while the <p> tag creates a new paragraph with a two-line break. • The <p> tag has an align element (left, center, right, justify) while no such attribute exists in the <br> tag.
Text Spacing • Although HTML ignores extra spacing, there is a ‘special character’ in HTML that gives you that functionality: • This is the non-breaking space character, and adds the ability to have extra spaces to your page. • Ex.: ‘There are 3 spaces between this and this.’: <p>There are 3 spaces between and this.</p>
The <pre> Tag • The <pre> tag displays pre-formatted text ‘exactly’ as it is typed within the HTML document. • All spaces are displayed without having to use the character. • Has one attribute, width, which controls the maximum number of characters per line (options are 40, 80, 132 – not common).
Try it yourself… Open your index.htm fileand use these spacing, linebreak, and paragraph tags to add formatting and spacing to the document you created.
Pretty Boring!!! • As you can see, that page has information, but is downright BORING. • So, what can we add to that page to spice it up a little bit? • If it were a word-processor document, what would you do?
Use of Color • In HTML, we can control the color of our pages, our fonts, our elements, and more. • There are 216 colors in the color-safe palette. • Colors are referenced using their RGB (Red, Green, Blue) color code or their name. • See www.loudoffice.com/class/colors.htm for a list of common colors.
The <body> Tag • The <body> tag is required for all HTML documents and defines the area where the document’s content is contained. • You can also use the <body> tag to define some of the formatting for the entire page. • Attributes taken by the <body> tag include bgcolor, background, text, link, vlink, alink, as well as margins.
The <body> Tag (cont.) • Attributes • bgcolor – the page’s background color. • background – the page’s background image. • text – the default color of all the page’s text. • link – the default color for all links. • alink – the default color for all default links. • vlink – the default color for all visited links.
<body> Tag - Margins • Can be controlled for newer browsers, but each browser has it’s own tags. • Internet Explorer • topmargin – controls the top margin • leftmargin – controls the left margin • Netscape Navigator • marginheight – controls the top margin • marginwidth – controls the left margin • All sizes are in pixels, or 1x1 dots on your screen. • This attribute should be used sparingly.
Try it Yourself… Go to the Class Notes Section on the LoudOffice.com class page. Click on ‘Fun with Fonts and Colors’ and play with the different page color combinations to see what looks nice and what doesn’t? How does color relate to usability?
Headings • Headings help you better structure and format your documents. • Heading tags are <h1> to <h6>. • Each has an opening and closing tag • <h1> has the largest font, and <h6> the smallest. • Like <p> has an align attribute, which has been deprecatedin HTML 4.0. • <h4> - <h6> are actually smaller than your normal text font and should be used sparingly.
HTML Coding Standards Nesting HTML Tags: • When you create an HTML document, you are going to have overlapping tags. • For instance you may have a bolded sentence with an italicized word. • You must close a nested tag before you can close the tag it’s nested in. • For instance, you cannot have <b><u>Text</b> more Text </u> • It would have to be: <b><u>Text</u> more Text </b>
Try it Yourself… • Format your home page (index.htm) using these formatting tags (<h1> - <h6>, <b>, <i>, <u>, <big>, <small>). • Get really daring and try nesting multiple tags.
THE <FONT> TAG • The most-used method to change the look of text on web sites is through the use of the <font> tag. • The <font> tag has three attributes: • face – controls the font type • size – controls the font size (range from 1 – 7) • color – controls the color • The use of <font> is deprecated in favor of style sheets in HTML 4.
THE <FONT> TAG • Face • This attribute determines the type face of the font (what the font looks like). The three most common font faces are: • Arial • Times New Roman • Courier • The font selected must exist on theuser’s computer or else it will not display correctly.