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Hand Bones
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  1. Hand Bones • Pisiform • Triquetrum • Lunate • Scaphoid • Trapezium • Trapezoid • Capitate • Hamate

  2. Hand Bones

  3. Hand joints • Carpometacarpal joint(s) – (CMC) • Metacarpophalangeal joints – (MCP) • Interphalangeal joints (proximal & distal) • 1st digit (IP) • 2-5 digits (PIP and DIP)

  4. Movements of the Wrist • flexion and extension • adduction (ulnar deviation) and abduction (radial deviation)

  5. Tips for the forearm muscles • Flexors and Palmaris longus (medial epicondyle) *flexor digitorum profundus • Extensors (lateral epicondyle) • “carpi radialis” – radial deviation (abduction) • “carpi ulnaris” – ulnar deviation (adduction)

  6. Flexor carpi radialisO: Medial epicondyle of humerusI: Base of second and third metacarpals, anterior (palmar surface)A: wrist flexion, abduction of wrist, weak elbow flexion, weak pronation of forearm

  7. Palmaris longusO: Medial epicondyle of humerusI: Palmar aponeurosis of 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th metacarpalA: Wrist flexion, weak elbow flexion

  8. Flexor carpi ulnarisO: Medial epicondyle of humerus,posterior aspect of proximal ulnaI: Pisiform, hamate, and base of 5th metacarpal (palmar surface)A: wrist flexion, adduction of wrist, weak elbow flexion

  9. Superficial Layer (Anterior Surface) • * Pronator teres (2nd) • Flexor carpi radialis (3rd) • Palmaris longus (4th) • Flexor carpi ulnaris (pinky)

  10. Extensor carpi ulnarisO: Lateral epicondyle of humerus, middle two-fourths of posterior border of ulnaI: Base of 5th metacarpal (dorsal surface)A: wrist extension, wrist adduction, weak extension of elbow

  11. Extensor digiti minimiO: Lateral epicondyle of humerusI: Base of middle and distal phalanxes of 5th phalangeA: Extension of little finger at MCP joint, weak wrist and elbow extension

  12. Extensor digitorumO: Lateral epicondyle of humerusI: Four tendons to bases of middle and distal phalanges of four fingers (dorsal surface)A: Extension of 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th phalanges at MCP joints, extension of wrist, weak extension of elbow

  13. Extensor carpi radialis brevisO: Lateral epicondyle of humerusI: Base of 3rd metacarpal (dorsal surface)A: extension of wrist, abduction of wrist, *weak elbow extension

  14. Extensor carpi radialis longusO: Lower third lateral supracondylar ridge and lateral epicondyle of humerusI: Base of 2nd metacarpal (dorsal surface)A: Extension of wrist, abduction of wrist, *weak elbow extensor, weak pronation

  15. Superficial Layer (Posterior) • Extensor carpi ulnaris • Extensor digiti minimi • Extensor digitorum • Extensor carpi radialis brevis • Extensor carpi radialis longus • Brachioradialis*

  16. Torque • Defined as “rotary” force • Torque is the product of linear force (F) and the force’s moment arm (d┴) T = Fd┴ T = F┴d • Torque is created when linear force acts away from the axis of rotation • Joint movements are rotational movements and thus are generated from torque

  17. Illustration of Torque

  18. Torque and Muscle Force

  19. Levers • A lever is a rigid bar that rotates about an axis of rotation or fulcrum • Levers represent the interaction of muscle torque (from linear force (F)) and resistive torque (from linear resistive force (R)) • There are three different classes of levers (Class I, II, III)

  20. Different Types of Levers

  21. Three Classes of Levers

  22. Levers will emphasize two different functions depending on the location of F and R (length of moment arm) in relation to the fulcrum or axis of rotation. • Large torque production • Large ROM and speed • Class II levers will emphasize force or torque production • Class III levers will emphasize large ROM and speed (human body is comprised mostly of Class III levers)