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Intelligent systems Lection 5

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  1. Intelligent systemsLection 5 Logic programming in Prolog

  2. Syntax of Prolog

  3. :- implication or ← , conjunction ; disjunction . End of clause _ name of variable, unused in later process of interpretation (anonimous variable) grandmother(X,Y) :- mother(X,Z), parent(Y,Z). Clause-rule mother(cathy, donald). Clause-fact

  4. Solving of task in Prolog Solving of task in Prolog (or interpretation of program) is based on unification ( kind of backward inference). Unification began from predicate-goal, which is needed to prove. And system try to use all possible cases corresponding to goal. Current proving predicate is current goal. During this process if attempt prove to be fail then system return back and try to use alternative case. So solving of task is search of any tree of goals.

  5. Simple program PREDICATES little (symbol) middle (symbol) big (symbol) strong (symbol) powerful (symbol) CLAUSES little (cat). little (wolf). middle (tiger). middle (bear). big (elephant). big (hippopotamus). strong (tiger). powerful (Animal):- middle (Animal), strong (Animal). powerful (Animal):- big (Animal).

  6. Goal: powerful (Animal). Try to use rule 1 try to prove middle(Animal) found fact middle(tiger) Animal = tiger try to prove strong(tiger) found fact strong(tiger) Powerful(Animal) is proved Animal = tiger Goal: powerful (elephant). Try to use rule 1 try to prove middle(elephant) fail return back (redo) Try to use rule 2 try to prove big(elephant) found fact big(elephant) Goal is proved

  7. grandparent(X,Z) :- parent(X, Y ), parent(Y,Z). parent(X, Y ) :- father (X, Y ). parent(X, Y ) :- mother(X, Y ). father (adam, bill). mother(anne, bill). father (adam, beth). mother(anne, beth). father (bill, cathy). mother(cathy, donald). father (donald, eric). mother(diana, eric). female(anne). male(adam). female(beth). male(bill). female(cathy). male(donald). female(diana). male(eric). Goal: father(adam,X) Result: father(adam,bill) Who is kids of adam? father(adam,beth) X=bill, X=beth Goal: father(X,bill) Result: father(adam,bill) Who is father of bill? X=adam Goal: grandparent(X,cathy) solving: grandparent(X,cathy) :- parentX,Y), parent(Y,cathy) parent(X,Y) :- father(X,Y) try with redo until Y=cathy result: parent(bill,cathy) X=bill, Y=cathy parent(bill, cathy) :- father(bill,cathy) result: parent(bill,cathy) grandparent(X,cathy) is proved with X=bill

  8. Lists and recursion in Prolog List may be described in 2 forms: [donald, peter, nick] - enumeration [A | Z] - fragmentation in head and tail [donald | Z] In last case as result of unification Z=[peter, nick] Fragmentation of lists is foundation of recursive programs

  9. Recursion without lists PREDICATES factorial (integer, integer) CLAUSES %factorial 0! equal 1 factorial (0, 1):- !. %factorial n! equalto factorial (n–1)!, multiplied by n factorial (N, Factorial_N):- M=N–1, factorial (M, Factorial_M), Factorial_N=Factorial_M*N. GOAL write (“Input number for calculation of factorial? ”), readint (Number), factorial (Number, Result), write (Number, “!=”, Result).

  10. Calculation 3!

  11. PDC-Prolog.Sections of program • CLAUSES contains clauses (main part) • PREDICATES contains descriptions of predicates (its structure), used in program • DOMAINS contains descriptions of domains (types of arguments of predicates) • GOAL contains predicate-goal used for start of program • DATABASE contains variable part of program, e. i. descriptions of predicates-facts which may be adding and removing during execution of program • CONSTANTS contains constants

  12. Example of program /* PROBLEM: A farmer with his goat, wolf and cabbage come to a river that they wish to cross. There is a boat, but it only has room for two, and the farmer is the only one that can row. If the goat and cabbage get in the boat at the same time, the cabbage gets eaten. Similarly, if the wolf and goat are together without the farmer, the goat is eaten. Devise a series of crossings of the river so that all concerned make it across safely. The state of the system is indicated by stating where the farmer, the goat the wolf and the cabbage are located. state( Farmer, Wolf, Goat, Cabbage ) The problem is that a state must only be visited once, and some states are illegal. This is checked by 'unsafe' and 'member'. The Predicate "go" can be called with a start state and a final state go( state(east,east,east,east), state(west,west,west,west) ). */

  13. DOMAINS LOC = east ; west STATE = state(LOC,LOC,LOC,LOC) PATH = STATE* PREDICATES go(STATE,STATE) /* Start of the algorithm */ path(STATE,STATE,PATH,PATH) /* Finds a path from one state to another */ move(STATE,STATE) /* Transfer a system from one side to another */ opposite(LOC,LOC) /* Gives a location on the opposite side */ unsafe(STATE) /* Gives the unsafe states */ member(STATE,PATH) /* Checks if the state is already visited */ write_path(PATH) write_move(STATE,STATE) show_move(STATE,STATE) showside(LOC,LOC,string) s_river GOAL makewindow(4,7,0,"",0,0,24,80), makewindow(3,7,7," The River ",15,0,10,80), makewindow(2,112,0,"",0,0,1,80), write("press any key for each step of solution"), makewindow(1,7,7," Solutions ",2,0,13,80), show_move(state(west,west,west,west),state(west,west,west,west)), go(state(east,east,east,east),state(west,west,west,west)), write("solved press any key to continue"), readchar(_), exit.

  14. CLAUSES go(S,G):- path(S,G,[S],L), nl,write("A solution is:"),nl, write_path(L), fail. go(_,_). path(S,G,L,L1):- move(S,S1), not( unsafe(S1) ), not( member(S1,L) ), path( S1,G,[S1|L],L1),!. path(G,G,T,T):- !. /* The final state is reached */ move(state(X,X,G,C),state(Y,Y,G,C)):-opposite(X,Y). /* FARMER + WOLF */ move(state(X,W,X,C),state(Y,W,Y,C)):-opposite(X,Y). /* FARMER + GOAT */ move(state(X,W,G,X),state(Y,W,G,Y)):-opposite(X,Y). /* FARMER + CABBAGE */ move(state(X,W,G,C),state(Y,W,G,C)):-opposite(X,Y). /* ONLY FARMER */ opposite(east,west). opposite(west,east):-!. unsafe( state(F,X,X,_) ):- opposite(F,X). /* The wolf eats the goat */ unsafe( state(F,_,X,X) ):- opposite(F,X). /* The goat eats the cabbage */ member(X,[X|_]). member(X,[_|L]):-member(X,L). write_path( [H1,H2|T] ) :- !, readchar(_), write_move(H1,H2), show_move(H1,H2), write_path([H2|T]). write_path( [] ).

  15. write_move( state(X,W,G,C), state(Y,W,G,C) ) :-!, write("The farmer crosses the river from ",X," to ",Y),nl. write_move( state(X,X,G,C), state(Y,Y,G,C) ) :-!, write("The farmer takes the Wolf from ",X," of the river to ",Y),nl. write_move( state(X,W,X,C), state(Y,W,Y,C) ) :-!, write("The farmer takes the Goat from ",X," of the river to ",Y),nl. write_move( state(X,W,G,X), state(Y,W,G,Y) ) :-!, write("The farmer takes the cabbage from ",X," of the river to ",Y),nl. /* Show them move across the river.*/ show_move( state(F,W,G,C), state(F1,W1,G1,C1) ) :-!, s_river, showside(F,F1,"Farmer "), showside(W,W1," Wolf "), showside(G,G1," Goat "), showside(C,C1,"Cabbage"), shiftwindow(1). showside(east,east,Item):-!, write(" ~~~~~ ",Item),nl. showside(west,west,Item):-!, write(" ",Item," ~~~~~ "),nl. showside(east,west,Item):-!, write(" ",Item," <= <= <= ",Item),nl. showside(west,east,Item):-!, write(" ",Item," => => => ",Item),nl. s_river:- shiftwindow(3),clearwindow, write(" WEST river EAST"),nl, write(" ----------------------------------------------------------------------"), nl.

  16. Main operators of PDC-Prolog INPUT -------- readln(StringVariable) (string) - (o) readint(IntgVariable) (integer) - (o) readreal(RealVariable) (real) - (o) readchar(CharVariable) (char) - (o) file_str(OSFileName,StringVariable) File <--> String (string,string) - (i,o) (i,i) inkey(CharVariable) (Char) - (o) keypressed()

  17. OUTPUT ====== write( Variable|Constant * ) nl() writef( FormatString, Variable|Constant* ) In the format string the following options are known after a percentage sign: %d Normal decimal number. (chars and integers) %u As an unsigned integer. (chars and integers) %R As a database reference number. (database reference numbers) %X As a long hexadecimal number. (strings, database reference numb). %x As a hexadecimal number. (chars and integers). %s Strings. (symbols and strings). %c As a char. (chars and integers). %g Reals in shortest posible format (default for reals) %e Reals in exponetial notation %f Reals in fixed notation %lf Only for C compatibility (fixed reals) \n - newline \r - carriage return \t - tabulator \nnn - character with code nnn

  18. FILESYSTEM ========== openread(SymbolicFileName,OSFileName) (file,string) - (i,i) openwrite(SymbolicFileName,OSFileName) (file,string) - (i,i) openappend(SymbolicFileName,OSFileName) (file,string) - (i,i) openmodify(SymbolicFileName,OSFileName) (file,string) - (i,i) openfile(SymbolicFileName,OSFileName,OpenMode,FileAttribute,CreateFlag) (file,string,integer,integer,integer) - (i,i,i,i,i)

  19. WINDOW SYSTEM ============= makewindow(WindowNo,ScrAtt,FrameAtt,Framestr,Row,Column,Height,Width) (integer,integer,integer,string,integer,integer,integer,integer) - (i,i,i,i,i,i,i,i) (o,o,o,o,o,o,o,o) makewindow(WindowNo,ScrAtt,FrameAtt,TitleStr,Row,Column,Height,Width, ClearWindow,TitlePos,BorderChars) (integer,integer,integer,string,integer,integer,integer,integer, integer,integer,string) - (i,i,i,i,i,i,i,i,i,i,i) - (o,o,o,o,o,o,o,o,o,o,o) ClearWindow: 0=Don't clear window after creation, 1=do clear. TitlePos: Title pos, value=255 centers title. BorderChars: A 6 character string to build frame. 1st char: Upper left corner 2nd char: Upper right corner 3rd char: Lower left corner 4th char: Lower right corner 5th char: Horizontal line 6th char: Vertical line Ex. "┌┐└┘─│" for a single border or "╔╗╚╝═║" for a double border shiftwindow(WindowNo) (integer) - (i) (o)

  20. STRING HANDLING =============== frontchar(String,FrontChar,RestString) (string,char,string) - (i,o,o) (i,i,o) (i,o,i) (i,i,i) (o,i,i) fronttoken(String,Token,RestString) (string,string,string) - (i,o,o) (i,i,o) (i,o,i) (i,i,i) (o,i,i) frontstr(Length,Inpstring,StartString,RestString) (integer,string,string,string) - (i,i,o,o) substring(String,First,NBytes,SubString) (string,integer,integer,string) - (i,i,i,o) subchar(String,CharNo,Char) (string,integer,char) - (i,i,o) searchstring(String,SearchStr,FoundPos) (string,string,integer) - (i,i,o) searchchar(String,Char,FoundPos) (string,char,integer) - (i,i,o) concat(String1,String2,String3) String3 = String1 + String2 (string,string,string) - (i,i,o) (i,o,i) (o,i,i) (i,i,i) str_len(String,Length) (string,integer) - (i,i) (i,o) (o,i) isname(StringParam) (string) - (i)

  21. CONVERSIONS =========== char_int(CharParam,IntgParam) (char,integer) - (i,o) (o,i) (i,i) str_int(StringParam,IntgParam) (string,integer) - (i,o) (o,i) (i,i) str_char(StringParam,CharParam) (string,char) - (i,o) (o,i) (i,i) str_real(StringParam,RealParam) (string,real) - (i,o) (o,i) (i,i) upper_lower(StringInUpperCase,StringInLowerCase) (string,string) - (i,i) (i,o) (o,i) upper_lower(CharInUpperCase,CharInLowerCase) (char,char) - (i,i) (i,o) (o,i) str_ref(Str,Ref) (string,ref) - (i,o) (o,i) (i,i) real_ints(Real,I1,I2,I3,I4) (real,integer,integer,integer,integer) - (i,o,o,o) (o,i,i,i)

  22. HANDLING THE INTERNAL DATABASE ============================== consult(OSFileName) (string) - (i) consult(OSFileName,InternalDatabaseName) (string,InternalDatabaseName) - (i,i) save(OSFileName) (string) - (i) save(OSFileName,InternalDatabaseName) (string,DatabaseName) - (i,i) assert( Term ) (InternalDatabaseDomain) - (i) asserta( Term ) (InternalDatabaseDomain) - (i) assertz( Term ) (InternalDatabaseDomain) - (i)

  23. SCREEN HANDLING =============== EXTERNAL DATABASE SYSTEM ======================== BGI GRAPHIC =========== EDITOR ====== STATUS LINES ============ OS RELATED =========== MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE LOWLEVEL =============================== ERROR & BREAK CONTROL ===================== MESSAGE SUBSYSTEM ================= MISCELLANEOUS ============= CONTROL PREDICATES ================== ARITHMETIC ==========