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Three Sections of the Cell

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Three Sections of the Cell - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Three Sections of the Cell. Cell = Basic unit of life All cells take in food, rid waste, reproduce 3 main sections 1) Nucleus 2) Cytoplasm 3) Plasma Membrane. Cytoplasm. Jelly-like material inside of the cell Continuously in motion Most organelles float within

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three sections of the cell
Three Sections of the Cell
  • Cell = Basic unit of life
  • All cells take in food, rid waste, reproduce
  • 3 main sections
    • 1) Nucleus
    • 2) Cytoplasm
    • 3) Plasma Membrane
cytoplasm
Cytoplasm
  • Jelly-like material inside of the cell
  • Continuously in motion
  • Most organelles float within
  • Job: Allow chemical reactions to take place
slide4

Plasma

Membrane

  • Aka: Cell Membrane
  • Job: Allow materials to enter/exit
  • Composition: Lipids & proteins
  • Semi-Permeable: only some materials may enter and exit
    • Through pores and protein channels
  • Many materials enter/exit as a result of diffusion
slide5

Nucleus

  • Job: Controls cell activity
    • Where DNA is made & stored
    • DNA holds info to make proteins
  • Surrounded by Nuclear Envelope
  • Inside:
    • 1) Chromatin: long strands of DNA
    • 2) Nucleolus: makes ribosomes
slide6

Endoplasmic Reticulum

  • Aka: ER
  • Rough ER: Tunnel system that transports ribosomes and proteins
  • Smooth ER: makes fats & breaks down toxins (no ribosomes)
slide7

Ribosomes

  • Created by nucleolus
    • Some attached to ER… some free-floating
  • Transported by the rough ER
  • Job: make proteins
slide8

Golgi Apparatus

  • Job: Package and transport proteins out of the cell
  • Process Review
    • 1) Genes hold instructions for making proteins
    • 2) Nucleolus makes a ribosome
    • 3) Ribosome makes protein & travels through rough ER
    • 4) Golgi Body packages the protein into a vesicle and exports them
slide10

Mitochondria

  • Powerhouse: Releases energy to the cell
  • Job: Create ATP (the energy used by cells) in a process called cellular respiration
    • Why more abundant in muscle cells?
  • Endosymbiosis theory: Once free living
slide11

Lysosome

  • Contain digestive enzymes
  • Functions:
    • 1) Break down food
    • 2) Kill bacteria
    • 3) Autolysis: Destroy dying cell
slide12

Cilia & Flagella

  • Made of protein
  • Used in locomotion
  • Cilia = short hair like extensions (numerous)
  • Flagella = long whip-like extension (very few)
slide15

Vacuole

  • Job: Stores food, water, waste, color pigments
  • Job: add support
  • Swells & shrinks with H2O supply
  • Plant cells: Large central vacuole (as pictured)
  • Animal cells: Scattered smaller vacuoles
slide17

Cell Wall

  • Outermost layer of plant, fungi, & bacteria cells
  • Job: Adds support to growing plants
  • Made of tough cellulose
    • Hard to digest
  • Witnessed by Robert Hooke in 1665
slide18

Chloroplast

  • Job: Perform photosynthesis (plants)

CO2 + H20 + sunlight  Sugar + O2

  • Chlorophyll absorbs sunlight & converts it into glucose (sugar)
  • Endosymbiosis: Once free-living
quick review
Quick Review
  • Different cells have many similar parts
  • Tiny parts are called “organelles”
  • Each organelle has a separate function